Pulmonary Disorders

Acute Bronchitis

Braman, S. S. (2006). Chronic cough due to acute bronchitis: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 129(1 Suppl):95S-103S. doi: 10.1378/chest.129.1_suppl.95S

Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (2020). 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer Health.

Fayyaz, J. (2019). Bronchitis treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/297108-treatment

Kinkade, S., & Long, N. A. (2016). Acute bronchitis. American Family Physician, 94(7), 560. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p560.pdf

Singh, A., Avula, A., Zahn, E. (2019). Acute bronchitis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448067/

Smith, M. P., Lown, M., Singh, S., Ireland, B., Hill, A. T., Linder, J. A., Irwin, R. S., CHEST Expert Cough Panel. (2020). Acute cough due to acute bronchitis in immunocompetent adult outpatients. CHEST, 157(5), 256-1265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.01.044


Anise, A., & Hasnain-Wynia, R. (2016). Patient-centered outcomes research to improve asthma outcomes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 138(6), 1503-1510. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.003

Bryant-Stephens, T., Reed-Wells, S., Canales, M., Perez, L., Rogers, M., Localio, A. R., & Apter, A. J. (2016). Home visits are needed to address asthma health disparities in adults. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 138(6), 1526-1530. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.006

Callaghan-Koru, J. A., Riekert, K. A., Ruvalcaba, E., Rand, C. S., Eakin, M. N. (2018). Home medication readiness for preschool children with asthma. Pediatrics, 144(5) e20191119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0829

Castro, M., Corren, J., Pavord, I. D., et al. (2018). Dupilumab efficacy and safety in moderate to severe uncontrolled asthma. New England Journal of Medicine, 378, 2486-2496. Doi: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1804092

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Asthma. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/asthma.htm

Corren, J. (2019). New targeted therapies for uncontrolled asthma. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 7(5), 1394-1403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.03.022

Dilley, M. A., Petty, C. R., Sheehan, W. J., Gaffin, J. M., Hauptman, M., & Phipatanakul, W. (2017). Adherence and stress in a population of inner-city children with asthma. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 28(6), 610-612. DOI: 10.1111/pai.12756

Elliot, J., Donovan, G., Wang, K., Green, F., James, A., Peter B. Noble, P. (2019). Fatty airways: implications for obstructive disease. European Respiratory Journal. DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00857-2019

Fitzpatrick, A. M., Jackson, D. J., Mauger, D. T., Boehmer, S. J., Phipatanakul, W., Sheehan, W. J., Szefler, S. J. (2016). Individualized therapy for persistent asthma in young children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 138(6), 1608-1618. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.09.028

Frey, S. M., Fagnano, M., & Halterman, J. (2016). Medication identification among caregivers of urban children with asthma. Academic Pediatrics, 16(8), 799. DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2016.04.005

Genentech. Xolair prescribing information. (n.d.). https://www.gene.com/download/pdf/xolair_prescribing.pdf

Global Initiative for Asthma. (2015). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. http://ginasthma.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/GINA_Report_2015_Aug11-1.pdf

Hatziagorou, E., Kouroukli, E., Avramidou, V., Papagianni, M., Papanikolaou, D., Terzi, D., Karailidou, M., Kirvassilis, F., Panagiotakos, D., Tsanakas, J. (2018). A "real-life" study on height in prepubertal asthmatic children receiving inhaled steroids. Journal of Asthma, 55(4), 437-42.

Hsu, J., Wilhelm, N., Lewis, L., & Herman, E. (2016). Economic evidence for US asthma self-management education and home-based interventions. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.in Practice, 4(6), 1123-1134. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2016.05.012

Kramer, C. B., LeRoy, L., Donahue, S., Apter, A. J., Bryant-Stephens, T., Elder, J. P., Federman, A. D. (2016). Enrolling African-American and Latino patients with asthma in comparative effectiveness research: Lessons learned from 8 patient-centered studies. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 138(6), 1600-1607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.011

Mammen, J., & Arcoleo, K. (2019). Understanding the genetics of asthma and implications for practice. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 31(7), 384-387. DOI: 10.1097/JXX.0000000000000246

National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. (2012). Asthma care quick reference. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/asthma_qrg.pdf

Normasell, R., Kew, K. M., Stovold, E. (2017). Interventions to improve adherence to inhaled steroids for asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD012226. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012226.pub2

Nyenhuis, S. M., Krishnan, J. A., Berry, A., Calhoun, W. J., Chinchilli, V. M., Engle, L., Ackerman, S. J. (2017). Race is associated with differences in airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 140(1), 257-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.024

Reddel, H. K., FitzGerald, J. M., Bateman, E. D., et al. (2019). GINA 2019: a fundamental change in asthma management: treatment of asthma with short-acting bronchodilators alone is no longer recommended for adults and adolescents. European Respiratory Journal, 53(6), 1901046. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01046-2019

Sanchis, J., Gich, I., Pederson, S., for the Aerosol Drug Management Improvement Team (ADMIT). (2016). Systemic review of errors in inhaler use: Has patient technique improved over time? CHEST, 150(2), 394-406. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012369216475719

Sutrisna, E. (2016). The impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 genes polymorphism on theophylline response. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 10(11), FEO1-FEO3. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/21067.8914

Virchow, J. C., Kuna, P., Paggiaro, P., et al. (2019). Single inhaler extra-fine triple therapy in uncontrolled asthma (TRIMARAN and TRIGGER): two double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, controlled phase3 trials. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32215-9


American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics Bronchiolitis Guidelines Committee, & Committee of infectious Diseases and Bronchiolitis Guidelines Committee. (2014). Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatrics, 134(2), 415-420. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1665

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2014). Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2014/10/21/peds.2014-2742.full.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for healthcare professionals. https://www.cdc.gov/rsv/clinical/index.html

Federico, M. J., Baker, C. D., Deboer, E. M., Halbower, A.C., Kupfer, O., Martiniano, S. L., Sagel, S. D., Stillwell, P., Zenmanick, E. T., Caraballo, M., Hawkins, S. (2019). Respiratory tract and mediastinum. In: J. R. Jay, M. J. Levin, R. R. Deterding, M. J. Abzug (Eds.). Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics. (24th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Food and Drug Administration. (2019). Synagis (palivizumab) for intramuscular administration. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/103770s5113lbl.pdf

Kou, M., Hwang, V., & Ramkellawan, N. (2018). Bronchiolitis. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 36(2), 275-286. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2017.12.006

Meissner, H. C. (2016). Viral bronchiolitis in children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374(1), 62-72. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1413456

Schroeder, A. (2015). Bronchiolitis. In: M. Cabana, P. Brakeman, M. Curran, L. DiMeglio, W. Golden, A. Goldsby, T. Kind, C. Lee, C, J. Lightdate, C. Sabella, R. Tanel. (Eds.). The 5 Minute Pediatric Consult. (7th ed.). (pp.136-137). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Ralston, S. L., Lieberthal, A. S., Meissner, H. C., Alverson, B. K., Baley, J. E., Gadomski, A. M., & Phelan, K. J. (2014). Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics, 134(5), e1474-e1502. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/134/5/e1474.full.pdf

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

American Thoracic Society. (2017). Management of COPD exacerbations: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline. European Respiratory Journal, 49, 1600791. DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00791-2016

American Thoracic Society. (2017). Prevention of COPD exacerbations: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline. European Respiratory Journal, 50, 1602265. DOI: 10.1183/13993003.02265-2016

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, Inc. (2020). Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. https://goldcopd.org/gold-reports/

Kochanek, K. D., Murphy, S. L., Xu, J. Q., & Arias, E. (2017). Mortality in the United States, 2016. NCHS Data Brief, no 293. National Center for Health Statistics.

Krishnan, J. A., Nibber, A., Chisholm, A. Price, D., Bateman, E. D., Bjermer, L., Roche, N. (2019). Prevalence and characteristics of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap in routine primary care practices. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 16(9), 1143-1150. DOI:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201809-607OC

Leung, J. M. & Sin, D. D. (2017). Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and therapeutic targets. British Medical Journal, 358, 3772. DOI:10.1136/bmj.j3772

Mosenifar, Z. (2019). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/297664-overview

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2018). COPD national action plan (NIH Publication No. 17-HL-8031). https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/education-and-awareness/COPD-national-action-plan

United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). USPSTF final recommendation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-screening?ds=1&s=COPD


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2018). Parainfluenza viral infections. In Redbook Online. https://redbook.solutions.aap.org/Redbook.aspx

Baiu, I., & Melendez, E. (2019). Croup. JAMA, 321(16), 1642. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.2013

Defendi, G. L. (2019). Croup. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/962972-overview

Gates, A., Gates, M., Vandermeer, B., Johnson, C., Hartling, L., Johnson, D. W., Klassen, T. P. (2019). Glucocorticoids for croup in children. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(6), 595-596. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0834

Hanna, R., Lee, R., Drummond, D., & Yunker, W. K. (2019). Defining atypical croup: a case report and review of the literature. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109686

Kliegman, R. M., Stanton, B., St. Geme, J., Schor, N. F. (Eds.). (2016). Nelson' s Textbook of Pediatrics. (20th ed.). Saunders Elsevier.

Smith, D. K., McDermott, A.J., Sullivan, J. F. (2018). Croup: diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 97(9), 575-580. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p575.html

Yang, W. C, Lee, J., Chen, C. Y., Chang, Y. J., Wu, H. P. (2017). Westley score and clinical factors in predicting the outcome of croup in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Pulmonology, 1329-1334. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23738

Cystic Fibrosis

Castallini, C., Duff, A., Bell, S., Heijerman, H., Munck, A., Ratjen, F., … Drevinek, P. (2018). ESFS best practice guidelines; the 2018 revision. The Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 17(2018), 153-178. https://www.cysticfibrosisjournal.com/article/S1569-1993(18)30029-8/pdf

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. (2018). Patient Registry Annual Data Report. https://www.cff.org/Research/Researcher-Resources/Patient-Registry/2017-Patient-Registry-Annual-Data-Report.pdf

DeSimone, E., Tillemann, J., Martin, E. G., Boussina, M. (2018). Cystic fibrosis: update on treatment guidelines and new recommendations. U.S. Pharmacist, 43(5), 16-21. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/cystic-fibrosis-update-on-treatment-guidelines-and-new-recommendations

Farrell, P. M., White, T. B., Ren, C. L., et al. (2017). Cystic Fibrosis Foundation consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics, 181, S1-S58. doi: 10.1016/j.peds.2016.09.064

Hollier, A. (Ed.) (2018). Cystic fibrosis. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Lahiri, T., Hempstead, S. E., Brady, C., et al. (2016). Clinical practice guidelines from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation for preschoolers with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics, 137(4), E201237842/peds.2015-1784. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-1784

Samer Al-Kaade, S., Khardor, R. (2019). Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency treatment & management. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2121028-overview

Foreign Body Aspiration

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2018). Moraxella catarrhalis infections. In Red Book 2018. (31st ed.). (pp. 513). American Academy of Pediatrics.

Caliskan, E., Aliyev, S., Habibi, H. A., Bayramoglu, Z., Yilmaz, R., & Adaletli, I. (2019). Utility of lung radiodensity ratios in diagnosis of radiolucent foreign body aspiration in children: a practical approach. Clinical Imaging, 54, 178-182. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2018.03.005

Divarci, E., Toker, B., Dokumcu, Z., Musayev, A., Ozcan, C., & Erdener, A. (2017). The multivariate analysis of indications of rigid bronchoscopy in suspected foreign body aspiration. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 100, 232-237. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.012

Gruber, M., Meer, G. V. D., Ling, B., Barber, C., Mills, N., Neeff, M., … Mahadevan, M. (2018). The bacterial species associated with aspirated foreign bodies in children. Auris Nasus Larynx, 45(3), 598-602. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2017.07.014

Hewlett, J. C., Rickman, O. B., Lentz, R. J., Prakash, U. B., & Maldonado, F. (2017). Foreign body aspiration in adult airways: therapeutic approach. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 9(9), 3398-3409. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.06.137

Kim, I. A., Shapiro, N., & Bhattacharyya, N. (2014). The national cost burden of bronchial foreign body aspiration in children. The Laryngoscope, 125(5), 1221-1224. doi: 10.1002/lary.25002

Lianjun, L., Liu, X., Lv, L., Wang, Y., Zha, X., & Tang, F. (2014). The clinical features of foreign body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 1613-1618. doi: 10.2147/cia.s70924

Lowe, D. A., Vasquez, R., Maniaci, V. (2015). Foreign body aspiration in children. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, (16)3. doi: 10.1016/cpem.2015.07.002

Mehta, R. V., Rashmi, N., Bajaja, P., Krishnan, S., & Srinivasan, L. (2019). Airway stenosis related to foreign body aspiration: an under-recognized long term complication. Clinical Medicine Insights: Case Reports, 12, 1-4. doi: 10.1177/1179547619863816

Ng, J., Kim, S., Chang, B., Lee, K., Um, S., Kim, H., & Jeong, B. (2019). Clinical features and treatment outcomes of airway foreign body aspiration in adults. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 11(3), 1056-1064. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2018.12.130

Osman, N., Korraa, E., & Elfattah, N. A. (2016). Complications and follow-up of foreign body inhalation. Egyptian Journal of Bronchology, 10(3), 232. doi: 10.4103/1687-8426.193631

Özyüksel, G., Soyer, T., Üzümcügil, F., Yalçın, Ş., Ekinci, S., Karnak, I., … Tanyel, F. C. (2019). Foreign body aspiration in infants: role of self-feeding. Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology, 32(2), 52-55. doi: 10.1089/ped.2019.1008

Salih, A. M., Alfaki, M., & Alam-Elhuda, D. M. (2016). Airway foreign bodies: a critical review for a common pediatric emergency. World Journal of Emergency Medicine, 7(1), 5-12. Doi: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2016.01.001

Sehgal, I. S., Dhooria, S., Ram, B., Singh, N., Aggarwal, A. N., Gupta, D., … Agarwal, R. (2015). Foreign body inhalation in the adult population: experience of 25,998 bronchoscopies and systematic review of the literature. Respiratory Care, 60(10), 1438-1448. doi: 10.4187/respcare.03976

Sink, J. R., Kitsko, D. J., Georg, M. W., Winger, D. G., & Simmons, J. P. (2015). Predictors of foreign body aspiration in children. Pediatric Otolaryngology, 155(3), 501-507. doi: 10.1177/0194599816644110

Song, E. S., Han, D. K., Cho, H. J., Jeong, I. S., Yoon, N., Ma, J. S., & Cho, Y. K. (2015). Radiodensity on serial chest x-rays for the diagnosis of foreign body aspiration in children. Indian Pediatrics, 52(8), 663-667. Doi: 10.1007/s13312-015-0693-z


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Pertussis. In: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (13th ed). Washington D.C. Public Health Foundation. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/pert.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Pertussis diagnosis confirmation. https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/clinical/diagnostic-testing/diagnosis-confirmation.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Whooping cough vaccinations. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/pertussis/index.html

Mbayei, S. A., Faulkner, A., Miner, C., Edge, K., Cruz, V., … Skoff, T. (2019). Severe pertussis infections in the United States, 2011-2015. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(2), 218-226. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy889

Moore, A., Ashdown, H. F., Shinkins, B., Roberts, N., Grant, C., … Harden, A. (2017). Clinical characteristics of pertussis-associated cough in adults and children. Chest, 152(2), 353-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.04.186

Wang, K., Bettiol, S., Thompson, M. J., Roberts, N. W., Perera, R., Heneghan, C. J. & Harnden, A. (2014). Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4), CD003257. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003257

World Health Organization. (2018). Pertussis. https://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/pertussis/en/


Bradley, J. S., Byington, C. L., Shah, S. S., Alverson, B., Carter, E. R., Harrison, C., & Swanson, J. T. (2011). Executive Summary: The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(7), 617-630. doi:10.1093/cid/cir625

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2018). Pneumonia management and prevention guidelines. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/management-prevention-guidelines.html

Cilloniz, C., Rodruguez-Hurtado, D., Torres, A. (2018). Characteristics and management of community-acquired pneumonia in the era of global aging. Medical Sciences, 6, 35, 1-17, doi: 10.3390/medsci6020035

Hadfield, J., & Bennett, L. (2018). Determining best outcomes from community acquired pneumonia and how to achieve them. Respirology, 23, 138-147. Doi: 10.1111/resp.13218

Kaysin, A., & Viera, A. J. (2016). Community-acquired pneumonia in adults: diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 94(9), 698-706. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p698.html

Metlay, J. P., Waterer, G., Long, A., Anzueto, A., Brozek, J., Crothers, K., Cooley, L. …Whitney, C. (2019). Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201908-1581ST

Sudden Unexplained Infant Death

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). About SUID and SIDS. https://www.cdc.gov/sids/AboutSUIDandSIDS.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Data and statistics, SUID and SIDS. https://www.cdc.gov/sids/data.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). SUID reporting form. https://www.cdc.gov/sids/SUIDRF.htm

Cummings, K. J., Leiter, J. C. (2019). Take a deep breath and wake up: The protean role of serotonin preventing sudden death in infancy. Experimental Neurology, 326, 113165. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.113165

Goldberg, N., Rodriguez-Prado, Y., Tillery, & R., Chua, C. (2018). Sudden infant death syndrome: a review. Pediatric Annals, 47(3), e118-e123. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20180221-03

Hunt, C. E., & Hauck, F. R. (2020). Sudden infant death syndrome. In Kliegman, R., Stanton, B., St. Geme, J. (Eds.). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (21st ed.). Elsevier.

Katz, D., Shore, S., Bandle, B., Niermeyer, S., Bol, K. A., & Khanna, A. (2015). Sudden infant death syndrome and residential altitude, Pediatrics. 135, e1442-1449. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2697

Moon, R. Y., & American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2016). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Updated 2016 recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 138, e1-e34, doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2940

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Ways to reduce the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related causes on infant death. https://safetosleep.nichd.nih.gov/safesleepbasics/risk/reduce


Ben, A. H., Makram, K., Chakib, M., Khaoula, R., Fatma, H., Fatma, S., … Ben, J. M. (2018). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: update on the epidemiology, risk factors and prevention strategies. International Journal of Tropical Diseases, 1(1). doi: 10.23937/ijtd-2017/1710006

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Latent tuberculosis infection: a guide for primary health care providers. Treatment of latent TB infection. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/ltbi/treatment.htm#treatmentregimens

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Trends in tuberculosis, 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Deciding when to treat latent TB infection. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/decideltbi.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018). Tuberculosis. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/default.htm

Chakraborty, S., & Rhee, K. Y. (2015). Tuberculosis drug development: history and evolution of the mechanism-based paradigm. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 5(8). doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a021147

Kaufmann, S. H., Weiner, J., & Reyn, C. F. V. (2017). Novel approaches to tuberculosis vaccine development. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 56, 263-267. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.10.018

Lewinsohn, D. M., Leonard, M. K., LoBue, P. A., Cohn, D. L., Daley, C. L., Desmond, E., Woods, G. L. (2017). Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical practice guidelines: Diagnosis of tuberculosis in adults and children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64(2), 111-115. doi.10.1093/cid/ciw778

Reyn, C. F. V. (2017). Correcting the record on BCG before we license new vaccines against tuberculosis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 110(11), 428-433. doi: 10.1177/0141076817732965

Unissa, A. N., Subbian, S., Hanna, L. E., & Selvakumar, N. (2016). Overview on mechanisms of isoniazid action and resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 45, 474-492. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.09.004

United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). Screening for latent tuberculosis infection in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 316(9), 962-969. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.11046

World Health Organization. (2020). Tuberculosis. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis

World Health Organization. (2019). Global Tuberculosis Report 2019. Executive Summary. https://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/tb19_Exec_Sum_12Nov2019.pdf?ua=1

World Health Organization. (2019). Toward TB elimination in low-incidence countries. https://www.who.int/tb/areas-of-work/treatment/elimination/en/

Zhang, Y., Shi, W., Zhang, W., & Mitchison, D. (2014). Mechanisms of pyrazinamide action and resistance. Microbiology Spectrum, 2(4). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.mgm2-0023-2013

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