Ophthalmic Disorders


Amescua, G., Akpek, E. K., Farid, M., Garcia-Ferrer, F. J., Lin, A., Rhee, M. K., . . . Mah, F. S. (2019). Blepharitis preferred practice pattern. Ophthalmology, 126(1), P56-P93. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.10.019

Comstock, T. L., & DeCory, H. H. (2017). Loteprednol etabonate 0.5%/tobramycin 0.3% Compared with dexamethasone 0.1%/tobramycin 0.3% for the treatment of blepharitis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, 25(2), 267-274. doi:10.3109/09273948.2015.1115879

Eberhardt, M., & Rammohan, G. (2019). Blepharitis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29083763

Fromstein, S. R., Harthan, J. S., Patel, J., & Opitz, D. L. (2018). Demodex blepharitis: clinical perspectives. Clinical Optometry. 10, 57-63. doi:10.2147/OPTO.S142708

Kagkelaris, K. A., Makri, O. E., Georgakopoulos, C. D., & Panayiotakopoulos, G. D. (2018). An eye for azithromycin: review of the literature. Therapeutic Advances in Ophthalmology, 10. doi:10.1177/2515841418783622

Shi, Y., Jia, R., & Fan, X. (2017). Ocular basal cell carcinoma: a brief literature review of clinical diagnosis and treatment. OncoTargets and Therapy, 10, 2483-2489. doi: 10.2147/OTT.S130371

Yildiz, E., Yenerel, N. M., Turan-Yardimci, A., Erkan, M., & Gunes, P. (2018). Comparison of the clinical efficacy of topical and systemic azithromycin treatment for posterior blepharitis. Journal of Ocular Pharmacologic Therapy, 34(4), 365-372. doi:10.1089/jop.2017.0095


Jain, S., Rajshekar, K., Aggarwal, A., Chauhan, A., & Gauba, V. K. (2019). Effects of cataract surgery and intra-ocular lens implantation on visual function and quality of life in age-related cataract patients: a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 8(1), 204. doi:10.1186/s13643-019-1113-6

Li, E., Margo, C. E., & Greenberg, P. B. (2019). A primary care provider’s guide to cataract surgery in the very elderly. Federal Practitioner, 36(4), 176.

National Eye Institute. (2019). Types of cataracts. https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/cataracts/types-cataract

Nizami, A. A., & Gulani, A. C. (2019). Cataract. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539699/

Solebo, A. L., Hammond, C. J., & Rahi, J. S. (2018). Improving outcomes in congenital cataract. Nature, 556(7699), E1-E2. doi:10.1038/nature26148


Jordan, G. A., & Beier, K. (2020). Chalazion. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29763064

Moussa, K., & Ramanathan, S. (2018). Periocular infections. Infectious Disease Emergencies. doi: 10.1093/med/9780199976805.001.0001

Shields, J. A., Lally, S. E., Milman, T., & Shields, C. L. (2019). Eyelid chalazion or not? Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 67(10), 1519. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1620_19

Wu, A. Y., Gervasio, K. A., Gergoudis, K. N., Wei, C., Oestreicher, J. H., & Harvey, J. T. (2018). Conservative therapy for chalazia: is it really effective? Acta Ophthalmologica, 96(4), e503-e509. doi:10.1111/aos.13675


Alfonso, S. A., Fawley, Jonie, D., & Alexa L. X. (2015). Conjunctivitis. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 42(3), 325-345. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.001

Kowalsky, D. S., Wolfson, A. B., & Zehtabchi, S. (2019). Topical antibiotics for clinical and microbiologic cure of bacterial conjunctivitis. Academic Emergency Medicine, 26(3), 345-346. doi:10.1111/acem.13663

Ramirez, D. A., Porco, T. C., Lietman, T. M., & Keenan, J. D. (2017). Epidemiology of conjunctivitis in US emergency departments. JAMA Ophthalmology, 135(10), 1119-1121. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.3319

Varu, D. M., Rhee, M. K., Akpek, E. K., Amescua, G., Farid, M., Garcia-Ferrer, F. J., . . . Dunn, S. P. (2019). Conjunctivitis preferred practice pattern. Ophthalmology, 126(1), P94-P169. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.10.020

Corneal Abrasion

Ahmed, F., House, R. J., & Feldman, B. H. (2015). Corneal abrasions and corneal foreign bodies. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 42(3), 363-375. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004

Domingo, E., Moshirfar, M., Zabbo, C. P. (2020). Corneal abrasion. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532960/

Fusco, N., Stead, T. G., Lebowitz, D., & Latha, G. (2019). Traumatic corneal abrasion. Cureus, 11(4), e4396. doi:10.7759/cureus.4396

Lim, C. H. L., Turner, A., & Lim, B. X. (2016). Patching for corneal abrasion. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (7), CD004764-CD004764. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004764.pub3

Root, J. M., Gupta, S., & Jamal, N. (2017). Nonpenetrating eye injuries in children. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 74-86. doi:10.1016/j.cpem.2017.01.004

Saccomano, S. J., & Ferrara, L. R. (2014). Managing corneal abrasions in primary care. The Nurse Practitioner, 39(9), 1-6. doi:10.1097/01.NPR.0000452977.99676.cf


Bashour, M. (2018). Congenital anomalies of the nasolacrimal duct. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1210252-overview

Soriano, L. M., Damasceno, N. A., Herzog Neto, G., & Damasceno, E. F. (2019). Comparative study of the clinical profile of chronic dacryocystitis and chronic rhinosinusitis after external dacryocystorhinostomy. Clinical Ophthalmology, 13, 1267-1271. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S200923

Valcheva, K., Murgova, S., Duhlenski, B., & Hristova, I. (2019). Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: epidemiology and risk factors. Journal of IMAB–Annual Proceeding Scientific Papers, 25(1), 2317-2322. https://www.journal-imab-bg.org/issues-2019/issue1/vol25issue1p2317-2322.html

Worak, S. R., & Bengzon, A. U. (2018). Nasolacrimal duct obstruction and epiphora. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1210141-overview


Abel, S.R., & Sorensen, S.J., (2018). Eye Disorders. In C.S. Zeind & M.G. Carvalho (Eds.) Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs (11th ed.) (pp. 1149-1158). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Boyd, K., (2019). What Are the Symptoms of Glaucoma? American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://aao.org/eye-health/diseases/glaucoma-symptoms.

Dunphy, L. M., Winland-Brown, J. E., Porter, B.O., & Thomas, D.J. (2015). Primary Care: The Art and Science of Advanced Practice Nursing, (4th ed.). F. A. Davis: Philadelphia, PA.

Ferri, F. (2018). Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018. Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.

Furlanetto, R.L., De Moraes, C.G., Teng, C., Liebmann, J., Greenfield, D.S., et al. (2014). Risk factors for optic disc hemorrhage in the low-pressure glaucoma treatment study. American Journal of Opthalmology, 157(5), 945-952.

Glaucoma Research Foundation. (2016). Are You at Risk for Glaucoma? http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/are-you-at-risk-for-glaucoma.php.

Gupta, D. & Chen, P.P., (2016). Glaucoma. American Family Physician 93(8): 668-674. http://aafp.org.afp/2016/0415/p668.html.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Lawler, L. & Morris, M.E. (2015). Validity and reliability of eye healthcare professionals in the assessment of glaucoma-a systematic review. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 69(6), 689-702. Doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2012.02773.x

McCance, K.L., & Huether, S.E. (2014). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. (7th ed.). Elsevier: St. Louis, MO.

Parrish II, R. (2014). Reframing the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations on screening for glaucoma. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 158 (5), 860-862.

Price, L. D., Shweikh, Y., & Siriwardena, D., (2019). Glaucoma: A Prescriber’s Guide. Journal of Prescribing Practice 1(6): 278-282. doi:10.12968/jprp.2019.1.6.278


Gharaibeh, A., Savage, H. I., Scherer, R. W., Goldberg, M. F., & Lindsley, K. (2019). Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1), CD005431-CD005431. doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005431.pub4

Nash, D. L. (2019). Hyphema. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1190165-overview

Root, J. M., Gupta, S., & Jamal, N. (2017). Nonpenetrating eye injuries in children. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 74-86. doi.org/10.1016/j.cpem.2017.01.004

Neonatal Conjunctivitis

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns. http://www.cdc.gov/conjunctivitis/newborns.html

Curry, S. J., Krist, A. H., Owens, D. K., Barry, M. J., Caughey, A. B., Davidson, K. W., . . . Kubik, M. (2019). Ocular prophylaxis for gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. JAMA, 321(4), 394-398. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.21367

Makker, K., & Kaufman, E. J. (2020). Neonatal conjunctivitis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441840/

McCourt, E. A. (2018). Neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1192190-overview

Schellack, N., Shirindza, N., & Mokoena, T. (2019). An overview of allergic conjunctivitis. South African Pharmaceutical Journal, 86(4), 13-22.

Ocular Chemical Burn

Baradaran-Rafii, A., Eslani, M., Haq, Z., Shirzadeh, E., Huvard, M.J., & Djalilian A. (2017) Current and upcoming therapies for ocular surface chemical injuries Ocular Surface, 15(1), 48-64. doi:10.1016/j.jtos.2016.09.002

Root, J. M., Gupta, S., & Jamal, N. (2017). Nonpenetrating eye injuries in children. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 74-86. doi:10.1016/j.cpem.2017.01.004

Sharma, N., Kaur, M., Agarwal, T., Sangwan, V. S., & Vajpayee, R. B. (2018). Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns. Survey of Ophthalmology, 63(2), 214-235. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2017.09.005

Solano, J. J. (2019). Ocular burns and chemical injuries. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/798696-overview

Ocular Foreign Body

Ahmed, F., House, R. J., & Feldman, B. H. (2015). Corneal abrasions and corneal foreign bodies. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 42(3), 363-375. doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004

Fraenkel, A., Lee, L. R., & Lee, G. A. (2017). Managing corneal foreign bodies in office-based general practice. Australian Family Physician, 46(3), 89-93.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Ocular foreign body. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Refractive Errors/Color Blindness

American Optometric Association. (2020). Astigmatism: Glossary of common eye & vision conditions. https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/astigmatism#1

Badawy, A. R., Hassan, M. U., Elsherif, M., Ahmed, Z., Yetisen, A. K., & Butt, H. (2018). Contact lenses for color blindness. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 7(12), e1800152. doi:10.1002/adhm.201800152

Boyd, K., & Edmond, J. C. (2019). What is astigmatism? American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-astigmatism

Boyd, K., & Pagan-Duran, B. (2019). What is presbyopia? American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-presbyopia

Chuck, R. S., Jacobs, D. S., Lee, J. K., Afshari, N. A., Vitale, S., Shen, T. T., & Keenan, J. D. (2018). Refractive errors & refractive surgery preferred practice pattern. Ophthalmology, 125(1). https://www.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/refractive-errors-refractive-surgery-ppp-2017

Harris, J., Mizuiri, D., Ambrus, A., & Lum, F. C. (2018). Pediatric eye evaluations preferred practice pattern. Protecting sight, protecting eyes. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.09.032

Naifeh, J., & Kaufman, E. J. (2020). Color vision. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470227/

National Eye Institute. (2019). Types of color blindness. https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness/types-color-blindness

Turbert, D., & Odalys Mendoza, O. (2019). What is color blindness? American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-color-blindness

Turbert, D., & Pagan-Duran, B. (2019). Nearsightedness: What is myopia? American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/myopia-nearsightedness

Yam, J. C., Jiang, Y., Tang, S. M., Law, A. K. P., Chan, J. J., Wong, E., . . . Pang, C. P. (2019). Low-concentration atropine for myopia progression (LAMP) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% atropine eye drops in myopia control. Ophthalmology, 126(1), 113-124. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.05.029


Coles, R. (2018). Vision and eye health in children. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 301(7920), 44. DOI: 10.1211/PJ.2018.20205821

Fioretto, M., & Hampton, R. (2018). Acquired esotropia. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1198784-overview

Ghasia, F. F., Otero-Millan, J., & Shaikh, A. G. (2018). Abnormal fixational eye movements in strabismus. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 102(2), 253-259. doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310346

Wang, Y., Xu, Y., Liu, X., Lou, L., & Ye, J. (2018). Amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors in congenital ptosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 8320. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26671-3

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