Neurologic Disorders

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer’s Association. (2017). Alzheimer’s Association Report: 2017 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures.

Cummings, J. L., Isaacson, R. S., Schmitt, F. A. & Velting, D. M. (2015). A practical algorithm for managing Alzheimer’s disease: what, when, and why? Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2(3), 307-323

Smart, C. M., et al. Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group. (2017). Non-pharmacologic interventions for older adults with subjective cognitive decline: Systematic review, meta-analysis and preliminary recommendations. Neuropsychology Review. 27 (3), 245-257. doi: 10.1007/s11065-017-9342-8

Bell's Palsy

de Almeida, J. R., Guyatt, G. H., Sud, S., Dorion, J., Hill, M. D., Kolber, M. R., et. al. (2014). Management of Bell palsy: clinical practice guideline. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(12):917-22. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.131801

Gronseth, G. S., Paduga, R. (2012). Evidence-based guideline update: steroids and antivirals for Bell palsy: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 79(22):2209-2213.

Karalok, Z. S., Taskin, B. D., Ozturk, Z., et. al. (2018). Childhood peripheral facial palsy. Childs Nervous System; 34(5):911-917. doi: 10.1007/s00381-018-3742-9

Madhok, V. B., Gagyor, I., Daly, F., et. al. (2016). Corticosteroids for Bell’s palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 7(7):CD001942. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001942.pub5

Schwartz, S. R., Jones, S. L., Getchius, T. S., Gronseth, G. S. (2014) Reconciling the clinical practice guidelines on Bell’s palsy from the AAO-HNSF and the AAN. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 150(5), 705-709. doi: 10.1177/0194599814529079

Taylor, D., Zacariah, S. (2019). Bell palsy. Medscape.

Vrabec, J. T., Backous, D. D., Djalilian, H. R., Gidley, P. W., Leonetti, J. P., Marzo, S. J., et al. (2009). Facial nerve grading system 2.0. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 140(4), 445-450. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.12.031

Zandian, A., Osiro, S., Hudson, R., Ali, I., Matusz, P., Tubbs, S. R., & Loukas, M. (2014). The neurologist’s dilemma: A comprehensive clinical review of Bell’s palsy, with emphasis on current management trends. Medical Science Monitor, 20, 83-90.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Graham, B., Peljovich, A. E., Afra, R., Cho, M. S., Gray, R., Stephenson, J., Gurman, A., MacDermid, J. … Sevarino, K. (2016). The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons evidence-based clinical practice guideline on: management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 98(20),1750-1754. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.16.00719.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Carpal tunnel syndrome. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Huisstede, B. M., Friden, J., Coert, J. H., & Hoogvliet, P. (2014). Carpal tunnel syndrome: Hand surgeons, hand therapists, and physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians agree on a multidisciplinary treatment guideline – results from the European hand guide study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(22), 2253-2263. doi:

Kleopa, K.A. (2015). In the Clinic. Carpel tunnel syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(5); ITC1. Doi: 10.7326/AITC201509010

Padua, L., Coraci, D., Erra, C., Pazzaglia, C., Paolasso, I., Loreti, C., …& Hobson-Webb, L.D. (2016). Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Lancet Neurology.

Sharief, F., Kanmani, J., & Kumar, S. (2018). Risk factors, symptom severity, and functional status among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology India, 66, 743-746. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.232351


Avallone, K. M., Smith, E. R., Ma, S., Gargan, S., Porter, K. E., Authier, C. C., Martis, B., Liberzon, I., & Rauch, S. A. (2019). PTSD as a mediator in the relationship between post-concussive symptoms and pain among OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Military Medicine, 184, e118-e123. doi:10.1093/milmed/usy225

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). CDC pediatric mTBI guideline.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Updated mild traumatic brain injury guidelines for adults.

De La Cour, F. L., Rasmussen, M. A., Foged, E. M., Jensen, L. S., & Schow, T. (2019). Vocational rehabilitation in mild traumatic brain injury: Supporting return to work and daily life functioning. Frontiers in Neurology, 10(103), 1-10. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00103

Dessy, A. M., Rasouli, J., Yuk, F., & Choudhri, T. F. (2015). Second impact syndrome: A rare, devastating consequence of repetitive concussions. Contemporary Neurosurgery, 37(20), 6-11. doi:10.1097/01.CNE.0000481063.69551.5c

Gupta, A., Summerville, G., & Senter, C. (2019). Treatment of acute sports-related concussion. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 12, 117-123. doi:10.1007/s12178-019-09545-7

Hirad, A. A., Bazarian, J. J., Merchant-Borna, K., Garcea, F. E., Heilbronner, S., Paul, D., Hintz, E. B., van Wijngaarden, E., Schifitto, G., Wright, D. W., Espinoza, T. R., & Mahon, B. Z. (2019). A common neural signature of brain injury in concussion and subconcussion. Science Advances, 5(8). doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau3460

Kim, E., Seo, H. G., Lee, H. H., Lee, S. H., Choi, S. H., Yoo, R. E., Cho, W. S., Wagner, A. K., & Oh, B. M. (2019). Altered white matter integrity after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8, 1318-1332. doi:10.3390/jcm8091318

Lindsey, G. L., Yesen, A., & Christie, A. D. (2019). The impact of physical activity and sleep on physiology following a mTBI. International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(3), 919-931.

McKeithan, L., Hibshman, N., Yengo-Kahn, A. M., Solomon, G. S., & Zuckerman, S. L. (2019). Sport-related concussion: Evaluation, treatment, and future directions. Medical Sciences, 7, 44-62. doi:10.3390/medsci7030044

Mullally, W.J. (2017). Concussion. The American Journal of Medicine, 130, 885-892. doi:10.1016j.amjmed.2017.04.016

Permenter, C. M. & Sherman, A. I. (2020). Postconcussive syndrome. NCBI Bookshelf StatPearls.

Polinder, S., Cnossen, M. C., Real, R .G., Covic, A., Gorbunova, A., Voormolen, D. C., Master, C. L., Haagsma, J. A., Diaz-Arrastia, R., & von Steinbuechel, N. (2018). A multidimensional approach to post-concussion symptoms in mild traumatic brain injury. Frontiers in Neurology, 9, 1113. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.01113

Sharp, D. J. & Jenkins, P. O. (2015). Concussion is confusing us all. Practical Neurology, 15, 172-186. doi:10.1136/practneurol-2015-001087

Sindelar, B., Patel, V., & Bailes, J. E. (2017). Return to play after a sports-related head injury. Contemporary Neurosurgery, 39(6), 1-5. doi:10.1097/01.CNE.0000516087.03855.69

Taylor, C. A., Bell, J. M., Breiding, M. J., Xu, L. (2017). Traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths – United States, 2007 and 2013. Surveillance Summaries, 66(9);1-16. doi:

Zhou, Y. & Greenwald, B. D. (2018). Update on insomnia after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Sciences, 8, 223-241. doi:10.3390/brainsci8120223

Febrile Seizures

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). MMRV and febrile seizures: vaccine safety.

Kawai, A. T., Martin, D., Kulldorff, M., Cole, D. C., McMahill-Walraven, C. N., Selvam, N., & Lee, G. M. (2015). Febrile seizures after 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Pediatrics 136(4), e848-855. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-0635

National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2018). Febrile Seizures Fact Sheet. NIH publication No. 15-3930.

Natsume, J., Hamano, S., Iyoda, K., Kanemura, H., Kubota, M., Mimaki, M., . . . Sugie, H. (2017). New guidelines for management for febrile seizures in Japan. Brain and Development, 39(1): 2-9. Doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2016.06.003

Seinfeld, S. A., Pellock, J. M., Kjeldsen, M. J., et al. (2016). Epilepsy after febrile seizures: twins suggest genetic influence. Pediatric Neurology, 55, 14-16. Doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.10.008

Stockwell, M. S., Broder, K., LaRussa, P., Lewis, P., Fernandez, N., Sharma, D., Barrett, A., Sosa, J., & Vellozzi, C. (2014). Risk of fever after pediatric trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(3), 211-219. doi:10.10110/jamapediatrics.2013.4469

Wilmshurst, J. M., Gaillard, W. D., Vinayan, K. P., Tsuchida, T. N., Plouin, P., Bogaert, P. V., . . . Cross, J. H. (2015). Summary of recommendations for the management of infantile seizures: task force report for the ILAE Commission of Pediatrics. Epilepsia, 56(8), 1185-1197. Doi: 10.1111/epi.13057

Headaches: Cluster Headaches

Blanda, M., Dafer, R., (2019). Neurology: cluster headache. Medscape.

Evers, S., Rapoport, A. (2017). The use of oxygen in cluster headache treatment worldwide – a survey of the International Headache Society. Cephalalgia, 37, 396. doi: 10.1177/0333102416647786

Goadsby, P. J., (2015). Treatment of cluster headache. American Migraine Foundation.

Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. (2018). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd ed. Cephalalgia, 38(1), 1-211.

International Headache Society. (2019). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd (ICHD-3).

May, A., Schwedt, T. J., Magis, D., et al. (2018). Cluster headache. Nature Review Disease Primers, 4:18006.

Robbins, M.S., et al. (2016). Treatment of cluster headache: The American Headache Society Evidence-Based Guideline. Headache. 56(7), 1093-1106. doi: 10.1111/head.12866

Headaches: Migraine Headaches

American Academy of Neurology. (2019). Practice guidelines update: Acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Neurology online.

Becker, W.J. (2015). Acute migraine treatment in adults. Headache, 55:778-793. doi: 10.1111/head.12550.

Chawla, J. (2020). Migraine headache. Medscape.

Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. (2018). Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS): The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 38(1), 1-211.

International Headache Society. (2019). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3).

Kurth T., Winter, A. C., Eliassen, A. H., Dushkes, R., Mukamal, K. J., Rimm, E. B., et al. (2016). Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 353: i2610.

Liebman, T. N., Crystal, S. C. (2011). What is the evidence that riboflavin can be used for migraine prophylaxis? Einstein Journal of Biological Medicine 27(1), 7-9.

Lilly USA. (2019). Reyvow (lasmiditan): prescribing information.

Mayans, L. (2018). Acute migraine headache: treatment strategies. American Family Physician, 97(4), 243-251.

Thompson, D. and Saluja, H. (2017). Prophylaxis of migraine headaches with riboflavin: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 42(4), 394-403.

Headaches: Tension Headaches

Berk, T., Ashina, S., Martin, V., et al. (2018). Diagnosis and treatment of primary headache disorders in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 66(12), 2408-2416. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15586

Blanda, M. (2017). Tension headache. Medscape.

Cardona, L. and Graham, J. (2016) Tension-type headache. American Migraine Foundation.

Derry, S., Wiffen, P. J., Moore, R. A. (2017). Aspirin for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; 1:CD01188.

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Tension headaches. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

International Headache Society. (2018). Tension-type headache. In The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd ed. Cephalalgia. 38:1.

Jensen, R. H. (2018). Tension-type headache: The normal and most prevalent headache. Headache. 58(2), 339-345. doi: 10.1111/head.13067

Lipton, R. B., Diener, H. C., Robbins, M. S., et al. (2017). Caffeine in the management of patients with headache. Journal of Headache Pain. 18(1), 107. doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0806-2

Major Neurocognitive Disorder

Alzheimer’s Association. (2020). Cognitive assessment.

Alzheimer’s Association. (2020). Can Alzheimer’s disease be prevented?

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Physical activity prevents chronic disease.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2017). Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. (10th ed., Vol.1). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Hasbun, R. (2019). Meningitis treatment and management. Medscape.

Infectious Diseases Society of America. (2004). Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 39 (9) 1267-1284.

National Institutes of Health. (2014). Meningitis and encephalitis fact sheet.

Van de Beek, D., Cabellos, C., Resat Sepahi, O., Brouwer, M. C., for the ESCMID Study Group for Infections of the Brain. (2016). ESCMID guideline: diagnosis and treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 22(Suppl 3), S37-S62. doi:

Multiple Sclerosis

Alharbi, F. M. (2015). Update on vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Neurosciences (Riyadh), 20(4), 329-35. doi: 10.17712/nsj.2015.4.20150357

Goodin, D. S. (2014). The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: Insights to disease pathogenesis. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 122, 231-266. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52001-2.00010-8

Karagaraj, P., Evangelou, N., et al. (2019). Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, 21(3), 177-184.

Rumrill, P., Bishop, M. (2019). Multiple sclerosis: A high-incidence immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 51(1), 1-9. doi: 10.3233/JVR-191020

Sivakolundu, D., West, K. L., et al. (2019). Reduced arterial compliance along the cerebrovascular tree predicts cognitive slowing in multiple sclerosis: evidence for a neurovascular uncoupling hypothesis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

The Consortium of MS Centers. (2018). MRI protocol and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and follow-up of MS.

Thompson, A. J., Banwell, B. L., Barkhof, F., Carroll, W. M., Coetzee, T., Comi, G., Correale, J., Fazekas, F., … Cohen, J.A. (2018). Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet 17 (2), 162-173. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30470-2

Wolinsky, J., Montalban, X. et al. (2018). Evaluation of no evidence of progression or active disease in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis in the ORATORIO trial. Annals of Neurology, 84 (4), 527-536. doi: 10.1002/ana.25313

Parkinsonʼs Disease

Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Parkinson’s disease. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.) Advanced Practice Education Associates.

International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society. (2008, updated 2019). The MDS-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2018). Parkinson’s disease quality standards (NICE guidance qs164).

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2017). Parkinson’s disease in adults (NICE guideline NG71).

Postuma, R., Berg, D., Stern, M., Poewe, W., Olanow, & Deuschld, G. (2015). MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 30 (12), 1591-1601. doi: 10.1002/mds.26424

Savica, R., Grossardt, B. R., Bower, J. H., Ahlskog, J. E., Rocca, W.A. (2016). Time trends in the incidence of Parkinson disease. JAMA Neurol. 73(8):981-989. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0947

Seizure Disorder

Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar-Bailey, P., Sandberg-Cook, J. (2017). Seizure disorder. In Primary Care A Collaborative Practice. (5th ed.). (pp 1054-1062). Elsevier.

Epilepsy Foundation. (2014). A revised definition of epilepsy.

Fisher, R. S., Acevedo, C., Arzimanoglou, A., Bogacz, A., Cross, J. H., Elger, C. E., Wiebe, S. (2014). A practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia, 55(4), 475-482.

Huff, J. S., Melnick, E. R., Tomaszewski, C. A., Thiessen, M. E., Jagoda, A. S., & Fesmire, F. M. (2014). Clinical policy: Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 63(4), 473-447. doi: 10.1016/S019606440400068X

Jackson, M. J. (2014). Concise guidance: diagnosis and management of epilepsies in adults. Clinical Medicine, 14(4), 422-427. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.14-4-422

Ko, D. Y. (2020). Epilepsy & seizures treatment and management. Medscape.

Luttrull, M. D., Cornelius, R. S., Angtuaco, E. J., Berger, K. L., Bykowski, J., Holloway, K., Wippold, F. J. (2014). ACR appropriateness criteria seizures and epilepsy. American College of Radiology.

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. (2012; updated 2020). The epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care [Clinical guideline; no 137].


Hollier, A. (Ed.). (2018). Syncope. In Clinical Guidelines in Primary Care. (3rd ed.). Advanced Practice Education Associates.

Numeroso, F., Mossini, G., Cervellin, G. (2017). Role of emergency department observation units in the management of patients with unexplained syncope: a critical review and meta-analysis. Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine. 4(4), 201-207. doi: 10.15441/ceem.17.231

Shen, W. K., et al. (2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation, 136, e60-e122.

Transient Ischemic Attack

Boehringer Ingelheim. (2019). Pradaxa prescribing information.

Coutts, S. B. (2017). Diagnosis and management of transient ischemic attack. Continuum, 23(1), 82-92. doi:10.1212/CON.0000000000000424

Gupta, H. V., Farrell, A. M., & Mittal, M. K. (2014). Transient ischemic attacks: predictability of future ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack events. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 27-35.

Janssen Pharmaceuticals. (2020). Xarelto prescribing information.

Kernan, W. N., Ovbiagele, B., Black, H. R., Bravata, D. M., Chimowitz, M. I., Ezekowitz, M. D., Wilson, J. A. (2014). Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 45(7), 2160-2236. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000024

Nanda, A. (2018). Transient ischemic attack. Medscape.

Panuganti, K. K., Tadi, P., Lui, F. (2020). Transient ischemic attach. StatPearls.

Virani, S. S., Alonso, A., Benjamin, E. J., Bittencourt, M. S., Callaway, C. W., Carson, A. P. … on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2020). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2020 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 141, e139-e596.

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Bendtsen, L., Zakrzewska, J. M., Abbott, J., Braschinsky, M., Di Stefano, G., Donnet, A., Eide, P. K., Leal, P. R., Maarbjerg, S., May, A., Nurmikko, T., Obermann, M., Jensen, T. S., and Cruccu, G. (2019). European Academy of Neurology guideline on trigeminal neuralgia. European Journal of Neurology. 26, 831-849. doi:10.1111/ene.13950

Benoliel, R., Sharav, Y., Haviv Y., et al. (2017). Tic, triggering, and tearing: from CTN to SUNHA. Headache, 57(6):997-1009. doi: 10.1111/head.13040

Gronseth G., Cruccu, G., Alksne, J., et al. (2008, reaffirmed 2018). Practice Parameter: The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Neurology, 71, 1183-1190. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000326598.83183.04

Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. (2018). The International Classification of Headache Disorders. (3rd ed.). Cephalalgia, 38(1), 1-211. doi:10.1177/0333102417738202

Zakrzewska, J., Linskey, M. (2016). Trigeminal neuralgia. American Family Physician, 94(2), 133-135.

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