Pregnancy

Medication Use in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP]. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk: Section on breastfeeding. Pediatrics, 129 (3), e827-e841.


American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP]. (2013). the transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: An update on selected topics. H. C. Sachs and Committee on drugs. Pediatrics, 132(3). e796-809. doi 10.1542/peds.2013-1985


National Institutes of Health [NIH]. (2016). LactMed: Drugs and lactation database. Available at: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm note: app for computer lookup and all handheld devices available at this link.


The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. (2017, November 27). Medicine Guidelines During Pregnancy: Overview. Health Library-Drugs, Devices, & Supplements. Retrieved March 21, 2018 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/4396-medicine-guidelines-during-pregnancy


U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. (2014). Content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; requirements for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Available at: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2014/12/04/2014-28241/content-and-format-of-labeling-for-human-prescription-drug-and-biological-products-requirements-for


U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA]. (2016). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. Available online from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/Labeling/ucm093307.htm



Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk: Section on breastfeeding. Pediatrics 129 (3), e827-e841.


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: An update on selected topics. Pediatrics, 132(3). e796-809. doi 10.1542/peds.2013-1985


Pernia, S., DeMaagd, G. (2016). The new pregnancy and lactation labeling rule. Pharmacy & Therapeutics 41 (11): 713-715. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083079/


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/Labeling/ucm093307.htm


U.S. National Library of Medicine. LactMed, a Toxnet Database. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm



Immunizations During Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2007). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (6th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


Beckmann, C. R., Casanova, R., Ling, F. W., Chuang, A., Herbert, W. N., Goepfert, A. R., Weiss, P. M. (2014). Obstetrics and Gynecology (7th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Vaccine Recommendations and Guidelines of the ACIP. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/general-recs/special-situations.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Guidelines for vaccinating pregnant women. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Pregnancy and Vaccination. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp/guidelines.html



Preconception Care


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). FAQ056. Good Health Before Pregnancy: Preconception Care. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Good-Health-Before-Pregnancy-Preconception-Care


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Before Pregnancy. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/preconception/index.html


Farahi, N., Zolotor, A. (2013). Recommendations for Preconception Counseling and Care. American Family Physician. 88(8):499-506.


Frayne, D.J. (2017). Preconception Care Is Primary Care: A Call to Action. American Family Physician. 96(8):492-494.


Sackey, J.A. (2018). The preconception office visit. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-preconception-office-visit


World Health Organization. (2013). Preconception care: Maximizing the gains for maternal and child health. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/preconception_care_policy_brief.pdf



Prenatal Care


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Practice Bulletin: Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders. Retrieved March 18, 2018 from https://s3.amazonaws.com/cdn.smfm.org/publications/223/download-f5260f3bc6686c15e4780f8100c74448.pdf


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). Committee opinion no.494: Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin and risk of birth defects. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 117(6), 1483-1485.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008). ACOG committee opinion no. 418: Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: Expanded recommendations. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 112, 739.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008). ACOG practice bulletin no. 95: Anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 112(1), 201-207.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2002). Committee opinion no.267: Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 99,171-173.


Garner, C.D. (2018). Medical history that poses potential nutrition-related risks in pregnancy. Table in: Nutrition in pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/image?topicKey=453&search=&source=outline_link&imageKey=OBGYN%2F107824


Lockwood, C.L., Magriples, U. (2018). Prenatal care: initial assessment. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/prenatal-care-initial-assessment


Lockwood, C.L., Magriples, U. (2018). Prenatal care: second and third trimesters. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/prenatal-care-second-and-third-trimesters


U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2009). Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive Services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12), 869-873.



Physiologic and Psychologic Changes of Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


Bauer, K.A. (2017). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Hematologic changes. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-hematologic-changes


Bermas, B.L. (2017). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Musculoskeletal changes and pain. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-musculoskeletal-changes-and-pain


Bianco, A. (2017). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Gastrointestinal tract. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-gastrointestinal-tract


Brown, H.D. (2018). Physiology of pregnancy. Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/approach-to-the-pregnant-woman-and-prenatal-care/physiology-of-pregnancy


Hall, M.E., George, E.M., Granger, J.P. (2011). The heart during pregnancy. Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition). 64 (11) 1045-1050. doi: 10.1016/j.recesp.2011.07.009


LoMauro, A, Aliverti, A. (2015). Respiratory physiology of pregnancy. Breathe. 11(4): 297–301. doi: 10.1183/20734735.008615


Petraglia, F., D’Antona, D. (2017). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Endocrine and metabolic changes. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-endocrine-and-metabolic-changes


Sanghavi, M. (2014). Cardiovascular physiology of pregnancy. 130:1003-1008. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.009029


Soma-Pillay, P., et al. (2016). Physiological changes in pregnancy. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. 27(2): 89-94. doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2016-02


Somani, S. (2015). Pregnancy Special Considerations. Physiologic Ocular Changes Occurring During Pregnancy. Medscape. Retrieved March 18, 2018 from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1229740-overview#a2


Thadhani, R.I., Maynard, S.E. (2017). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Renal and urinary tract physiology. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-renal-and-urinary-tract-physiology



Adolescent Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee on Adolescent Healthcare: Committee Opinion No. 699. Adolescent Pregnancy, Contraception, and Sexual Activity. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Adolescent-Health-Care/Adolescent-Pregnancy-Contraception-and-Sexual-Activity


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). About Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Reproductive Health: Teen Pregnancy. Health Care Providers and Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/health-care-providers/index.htm


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Reproductive Health: Teen Pregnancy. Improving Contraceptive Access: Tools for Providers. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/health-care-providers/improving-contraceptive-access.html


Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Osterman, M.J.K., et al. (2017) Births: Final data for 2015. National Vital Statistics Report, 66 (1). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.



Nutrition and Exercise in Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). FAQ119. Exercise during pregnancy. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq119.pdf?dmc=1&ts=2012


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Nutrition during pregnancy. FAQ001. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Nutrition-During-Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. Committee Opinion No. 650. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Physical-Activity-and-Exercise-During-Pregnancy-and-the-Postpartum-Period


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Weight Gain During Pregnancy. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-weight-gain.htm


Garner, C.D. (2018). Nutrition in pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/nutrition-in-pregnancy


Knight, M. (2017). Diet and exercise in pregnancy. Editorial. BMJ 358 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j3283. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: http://www.bmj.com/content/358/bmj.j3283


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. (2018). Health Tips for Pregnant Women. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/weight-management/health-tips-pregnant-women



Common Discomforts in Pregnancy


Ankle Edema in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2008). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (10th ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2007). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Heine, P.H., Swamy, G.K. Lower extremity edema during late pregnancy. Merck Manual Professional. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/symptoms-during-pregnancy/lower-extremity-edema-during-late-pregnancy


Mayo Clinic Staff. (2017). What causes ankle swelling during pregnancy, and what can I do about it? Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/swelling-during-pregnancy/faq-20058467


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Backache in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2016). Back pain during pregnancy. FAQ 115. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Back-Pain-During-Pregnancy


Back Pain During Pregnancy. (2017). Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. 62(1):135-136. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12597.


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2011). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (9th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Constipation in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2011). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. (9th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Rungsiprakarn, P., et al. (2015). Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011448.pub2. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD011448.pub2/full


Trottier, M., Erebara, A., Bozzo, P. (2012). Treating constipation during pregnancy. Canadian Family Physician. 58 (8): 836-838.


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Heartburn in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


Gerson, L.B. (2012). Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease During Pregnancy. Gastroenterology and Hepatology 8(11): 763-764


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Vazquez, J.C. (2015). Heartburn in pregnancy. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com/x/systematic-review/1411/overview.html


Hemorrhoids in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


Mirhaidari, S.J., Porter, J.A., Slezak, F.A. (2016). Thrombosed external hemorrhoids in pregnancy: a retrospective review of outcomes. International Journal of Colorectal Disease. 31(8):1557-9. doi: 10.1007/s00384-016-2565-y.


Shirah, B.H., et al. (2017). Hemorrhoids during pregnancy: Sitz bath vs. ano-rectal cream: A comparative prospective study of two conservative treatment protocols. pii: S1871-5192(17)30282-2. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2017.10.003.


University of Rochester Medical Center. Health Encyclopedia. Hemorrhoids and Varicose Veins in Pregnancy. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=134&contentid=9


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


WebMD. Hemorrhoids and Constipation in Pregnancy: Topic Overview. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.webmd.com/baby/tc/pregnancy-hemorrhoids-and-constipation-topic-overview


Leg Cramps in Pregnancy


Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2016). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Hensley, J. G. (2009). Leg cramps and restless leg syndrome during pregnancy. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 54(3), 211-218.


Zhou, K., West, H.M., Zhang, J., Xu, L., Li, W. (2015). Interventions for leg cramps during pregnancy. Cochrane Collaboration. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: http://www.cochrane.org/CD010655/PREG_interventions-leg-cramps-during-pregnancy


Leukorrhea in Pregnancy


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


American Pregnancy Association. (2015). Vaginal discharge during pregnancy. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/vaginal-discharge-during-pregnancy/


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Nasal Congestion and Epistaxis in Pregnancy


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Goldstein, G., Govindaraj, S. (2012). Rhinologic issues in pregnancy. Allergy and Rhinology. 3(1): e13-e15. doi: 10.2500/ar.2012.3.0028


Schatz, M. (2018). Recognition and management of allergic disease during pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/recognition-and-management-of-allergic-disease-during-pregnancy


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 131(1): e15-e30. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002456


Campbell, K., Rowe, H., Azzam, H., Lane, C.A. (2016). The management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 38(12): 1127-1137. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.08.009.


Smith, J.A., Refuerzo, J.S., Fox, K.A. (2018). Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-outcome-of-nausea-and-vomiting-of-pregnancy


Round Ligament Pain in Pregnancy


Aguilera, P.A. (2018). Pregnancy, round ligament pain. E Medicine Health. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/pregnancy_round_ligament_pain/article_em.htm#pregnancy_round_ligament_pain_overview


Murry, M.M. (2014). Round ligament pain: understanding this pregnancy complaint. Mayo Clinic Pregnancy and You blog. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-blog/round-ligament-pain/bgp-20111536

Round ligament pain during pregnancy. (2018). WebMD. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/pregnancy-round-ligament-pain#1

Varicose Veins in Pregnancy


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


De Cossart, L. (2001). Varicose veins and pregnancy. British Journal of Surgery. 88(3):323-324.


Horse Chestnut. WebMD Find a Vitamin or Supplement. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1055-horse%20chestnut.aspx?activeingredientid=1055&activeingredientname=horse%20chestnut


Smyth, R.M., Aflaifel, N., Bamigboye A.A. (2015). Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. 19;(10):CD001066. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001066.pub3.


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Urinary Frequency in Pregnancy


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2015). Olds’ Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women's Health Across the Lifespan. (10th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Thadani, R., Maynard, S.E. (2017). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Renal and urinary tract physiology. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-renal-and-urinary-tract-physiology


Urinary problems during pregnancy. WebMD. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.webmd.com/baby/tc/urinary-problems-during-pregnancy-topic-overview


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.



Conditions that Complicate Pregnancy


Abruptio Placentae


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 188: Prelabor Rupture of Membranes. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 131(1):e1-e14. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002455.


Deering, S. (2017). Medscape Drugs and Disease. Obstetrics & Gynecology. Abruptio Placentae. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252810-overview#a1


Schmidt, P., Raines, D. (2018). Placental Abruption (Abruptio Placentae). In: StatPearls: StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island, FL.


Acute Cystitis in Pregnancy


Ailes, E.C., Summers, A.D., Tran, E.T., Gilboa, S.M., Arnold, K.E., Meany-Delman, D., Reefhuis, J. (2018). Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections—United States, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6701a4.htm?s_cid=mm6701a4_e


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Key Findings: Antibiotic Treatments for Urinary Tract Infections Are Commonly Prescribed To Pregnant Women. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/features/kf-uti-antibiotic-treatments-pregnant-women.html


Hooton, T.M., Gupta, K. (2017). Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/urinary-tract-infections-and-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-pregnancy


Johnson, K. (2017). Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy Treatment & Management. Medscape. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452604-treatment


Kalinderi, K., Delkos, D., Kalinderis, M., Athanadiasis, A., Kalogiannidis I. (2018). Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 6, 1-6. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2017.1370579.


Cervical Insufficiency


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). ACOG Practice Bulletin No.142: Cerclage for the management of cervical insufficiency. Obstet Gynecol. 123(2 Pt 1): 372-379. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000443276.68274.cc


Berghella, V. (2018). UpToDate. Cervical Insufficiency. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/cervical-insufficiency


Norwitz, E. (2016). Cervical Insufficiency. Medscape. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1979914-overview

Ectopic Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin Number 191. Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from:

https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Practice-Bulletins/Committee-on-Practice-Bulletins-Gynecology/Tubal-Ectopic-Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). FAQ155: Ectopic Pregnancy. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Ectopic-Pregnancy


Broussard, A. B., & Hurst, H. M. (2009). Antepartum-intrapartum complications. In M. T. Verklan & M. Walden (Eds.) AWHONN: Core Curriculum for Neonatal Intensive Care Nursing. Philadelphia: Saunders.


Sepilian, V. (2017). Ectopic Pregnancy. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2041923-overview


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 190 Summary: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Obstetrics & Gynecology 131 (2), 406-408. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002498


American Diabetes Association. (2018). Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 41 (Suppl 1): S1-S2. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-Sint01


Harper L.M. et al. (2016). Carpenter-Coustan Compared With National Diabetes Data Group Criteria for Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127(5) 893-898. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001383


Moore, T. (2018). Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy, Gestational Diabetes. Medscape. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127547-overview#a2


United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2014). Gestational diabetes screening. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from:: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-screening


Gestational Trophoblastic Disease


ACOG committee opinion no. 418: Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: Expanded recommendations. (2008). Obstetrics and Gynecology, 112, 739.


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (Ed.). (2007). Guidelines for perinatal care (6th Ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (2002). Committee opinion no.267: Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 99,171-173.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (2011). Committee opinion no.494: Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin and risk of birth defects. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 117(6), 1483-1485.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). (2011). Committee opinion no.504: Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 118(3), 751-753


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008). ACOG practice bulletin no. 95: Anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology, 112(1), 201-207.


American Diabetes Association. (2010), Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 33, S62.


American Diabetes Association (2014). Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care doi: 10.2337/dc14-S014, 37 (1) S14-S80.


American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. Retrieved from http://www.aocd.org/?page=PUPPP.


Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2008). Bates' guide to physical examination and history taking (10th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Broussard, A. B., & Hurst, H. M. (2009). Antepartum-intrapartum complications. In M. T. Verklan & M. Walden (Eds.), AWHONN: Core curriculum for neonatal intensive care nursing Philadelphia: Saunders.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015; 64 (No.RR-3): 1-137.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011b). Iron and iron deficiency anemia. Retrieved 2/19/15 from http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/iron.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Guidelines for vaccinating pregnant women. Abstracted from recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2007). Old's maternal-newborn nursing and women's health across the lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Hensley, J. G. (2009). Leg cramps and restless leg syndrome during pregnancy. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 54(3), 211-218.


Hurst, H. (2007). Section 2: Selected pregnancy complications (bleeding in pregnancy). In S. Perry, K. Cashion & D. Lowdermilk (Eds.), Clinical companion for maternity and women's health care. New York: Elsevier.


Johnson, E., & Kim, E. (2011). Urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Medscape. Retrieved 2/18/15 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452604-overview


King, T., & Brucker, M. (2011). Pharmacology for women’s health. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Moore, L. E. & Hernandez, E. (2016). Hydatidiform mole. Retrieved on 01/21/17 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/254657-overview#a4


Ngan, H., Seckl, M.J., Berkowitz, R.S., Xiang, Y., Golfier, F., Sekharan, P.K., & Lurain, J.R. (2015). Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 131, S123-S126.


Prevention of varicella. Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (2007). MMWR, 56(1).


Roszenhoic, A., Dodge, J., Breguet, M. & Sautheir, P. (2016). Gestational trophoblastic disease: Opportunities for a national registry collaboration. International journal of gynecological cancer, 26(6), 1182-1185.


Rioux, F.M., & LeBlanc, C.P. (2007). Iron supplementation during pregnancy: What are the risks and benefits of current practice? Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and metabolism, 32, 282-288.


Screening for hepatitis b virus infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement. (2009). Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12), 869-873.


United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). (2014). Gestational diabetes screening. Retrieved 2/11/15 from http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-screening.


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2004). Varney's midwifery (4th Ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Hyperemesis Gravidarum


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). FAQ126 Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Morning-Sickness-Nausea-and-Vomiting-of-Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2015). Practice Bulletin No. 153: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 126:e12-24. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001048


Smith, J.A. (2018). Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-outcome-of-nausea-and-vomiting-of-pregnancy


Wegrzyniak, L.J., Repke, J.T., Ural, S.H. (2012). Treatment of Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 5(2): 78–84.



Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 95: Anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 112 (1): 201-207. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181809c0d.


Gautam, C. (2008). Iron Deficiency in Pregnancy and the Rationality of Iron Supplements Prescribed During Pregnancy. The Medscape Journal of Medicine. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/583028_3


Harper, J. (2018). Iron Deficiency Anemia. Medscape. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202333-overview


Nguyen, V., Wuebbolt, D. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy and Treatment Options: A Patient-Preference Study. Obstetrics & Gynecology. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000514632.23408.54



Multiple Gestation


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). FAQ188 Multiple Pregnancy. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Multiple-Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 144: Multifetal gestations: twin, triplet, and higher-order multifetal pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 123(5):1118-32. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000446856.51061.3e.


Chasen, S.T. (2018). Twin pregnancy: prenatal issues. UpToDate. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/twin-pregnancy-prenatal-issues


Heard, A. (2016). Multifetal Pregnancy. Overview, Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology. Medscape Drugs and Disease Obstetrics and Gynecology. Retrieved March 19, 2018 from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1618038-overview


Mugglestone, M.A. (2011). Practice Guidelines. Antenatal care for twin and triplet pregnancies: summary of NICE guidance

BMJ. 343 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5714



Placenta Previa


Bakker, R. (2018). Placenta previa. Medscape. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/262063-overview


Kollman, M., Gaulhofer, J., Lang, U., Klaritsch, P. (2016). Placenta praevia: incidence, risk factors and outcome. Journal of Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. 29 (9) 1395-1398. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1049152


Lockwood, CJ. (2018). Placenta previa: management. UpToDate. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/placenta-previa-management


Silver, R.M. (2015). Abnormal Placentation: Placenta Previa, Vasa Previa, and Placenta Accreta. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 126 (3): 654-688.



Preeclampsia, Eclampsia


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Hypertension in Pregnancy. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/~/media/Task%20Force%20and%20Work%20Group%20Reports/public/HypertensioninPregnancy.pdf


Ross, M. (2017). Eclampsia. Medscape. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253960-overview#a1


United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). What causes preeclampsia and eclampsia? Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preeclampsia/conditioninfo/causes


World Health Organization. (2011). WHO Recommendations for Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK140555/



Preterm Labor


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). ACOG practice bulletin no. 127: Management of preterm labor. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 119 (6): 1308-17. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31825af2f0.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth: Resource Overview. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Womens-Health/Preterm-Premature-Labor-and-Birth


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Preterm Birth. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pretermbirth.htm


Ross, M. (2017). Preterm Labor: Practice Essentials. Medscape. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/260998-overview#a1



Postpartum Depression


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010). Clinical Report—Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal and Postpartum Depression

Into Pediatric Practice. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2010/10/25/peds.2010-2348.full.pdf


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Depression and Postpartum Depression: Resource Overview. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Womens-Health/Depression-and-Postpartum-Depression


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). Postpartum depression. FAQ091. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Postpartum-Depression


Haim, A., Albin-Brooks, C., Sherer, M., Mills, E., & Leuner, B. (2016). The effects of gestational stress and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain¬. A translational model for postpartum depression. Hormones and Behavior 77, 125-131. Doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.05.005


Hallgren, M. (2016). Exercise and Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48, 383.


Health Canada. (2016). Summary safety review. Antidepressants. Assessing the potential risk of serious eye disorder (acute-closure glaucoma). Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/medeffect-canada/safety-reviews/summary-safety-review-hormone-replacement-therapy-estrogenic-progestogenic-agents-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-serms-assessing-potential.html


National Institute of Mental Health. Postpartum Depression Facts. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtml


Nedhari, A. (2011). Examining Postpartum Depression Symptoms and Treatment. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 3(08). Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=558


O’Connor, E., Rossom, R., Henninger, M., Groom, H.C., & Burda, B.U. (2016). Primary care screening for and treatment of depression in pregnant and postpartum women: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Journal of the American Medical Association 315(4), 388-406. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.18948



Postterm Labor


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). ACOG Practice Bulletin Number 146: Management of Late-Term and Postterm Pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 124: 390-396.


Norwitz, E. (2018). Patient Education: Postterm pregnancy (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/postterm-pregnancy-beyond-the-basics


Caughey, A. (2016). Postterm Pregnancy. Medscape. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/261369-overview#a6



Umbilical Cord Prolapse


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Committee Opinion. Approaches to Limit Intervention During Labor and Birth. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/co687.pdf


Bush, M. (2017). Umbilical cord prolapse. UpToDate. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/umbilical-cord-prolapse


Phelan, S. (2013). Umbilical cord prolapse. Contemporary ObGyn. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: http://contemporaryobgyn.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-obgyn/content/tags/bradley-holbrook-md/umbilical-cord-prolapse?page=full



Spontaneous Abortion


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Early pregnancy loss. Practice Bulletin No. 150. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 125:1258–67. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Practice-Bulletins/Committee-on-Practice-Bulletins-Gynecology/Early-Pregnancy-Loss


BMJ Publishing Group. (2017). Miscarriage. BMJ Best Practice. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: http://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/666


Prine, L.W., Macnaughton, H. (2011). Office management of early pregnancy loss. American Family Physician. 84(1):75-82. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p75.html


Puscheck, E. (2017). Early Pregnancy Loss. Medscape. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://reference.medscape.com/article/266317-overview


Tulandi, T., Al-Fozan, H. (2017). Spontaneous abortion: Risk factors, etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation. UpToDate. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/spontaneous-abortion-risk-factors-etiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnostic-evaluation


Tulandi, T., Al-Fozan, H. (2017). Patient education: Miscarriage (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. Retrieved March 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/miscarriage-beyond-the-basics



Substance Use Disorder in Pregnancy


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2017). Committee Opinion No. 711. Opioid use and opioid use disorder in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 130: e 81-94. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Opioid-Use-and-Opioid-Use-Disorder-in-Pregnancy


Grekin, E. Svikis, D, et al. (2010). Drug Use During Pregnancy: Validating the Drug Abuse Screening Test Against Physiological Measures. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 24 (4): 10.1037/a0021741. doi: 10.1037/a0021741


National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2015). Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/infographics/dramatic-increases-in-maternal-opioid-use-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome


Saia, K. A., Schiff, D. et. al. (2016). Caring for Pregnant Women with Opioid Use Disorder in the USA: Expanding and Improving Treatment. Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports. 5(3): 257-263. doi: 10.1007/s13669-016-0168-9


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2015). Substance Use Disorders. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from: https://www.samhsa.gov/disorders/substance-use


Wilson, J. and Thorp, J. (2008). Substance Abuse in Pregnancy. Global Library of Women’s Medicine. DOI 10.3843/GLOWM.10115



Polymorphic Eruption Pregnancy


Ambros-Rudolph, C. M., Mullegger, R. R., Vaughan-Jones, S. A., Kerl, H., & Black, M. M. (2006). The specific dermatoses of pregnancy revisited and reclassified: Results of a retrospective two-center study on 505 pregnant patients. J Am Acad Dermatol, 54(3) 395.


American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Frequently asked questions: Skin conditions during pregnancy. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: http://www.acog.org/-/media/For-Patients/faq169.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20150531T1154060003.v


American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: http://www.aocd.org/?page=PUPPP


Drugs.com. (2015). Antihistamines. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: www.drugs.com/drug-class/antihistamines.html


Drugs.com. (2015). Glucocorticoids. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from www.drugs.com/drug-class/glucocorticoids.html


Drugs.com. (2015). Topical Emollients. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from www.drugs.com/drug-class/topical-emollients.html


Drugs.com. (2015). Topical Steroids. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from www.drugs.com/drug-class/topical-steroids.html


Ghazeer, G., Kibbi, A. G., & Abbas, O. (2012). Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy: Epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological study of 18 cases from Lebanon. International Journal of Dermatology, 51(9), 1047-1053. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05203.x


Lehrhoff, S., & Pomeranz, M. K. (2013). Specific dermatoses of pregnancy and their treatment. Dermatologic Therapy, 26, 274-284.


Munikrishna, M., & Shashidhar, B. (2011). Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy developing in a gravida having overt diabetes with hypothyroidism, pre-eclampsia and anemia. Journal of SAFOG with DVD, 3(2), 98-99.


Park, S. Y., & Kin, J. H., & Lee, W. S. (2013). Pruritic uriticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy with unique distribution developing in postpartum period. Annals of Dermatology, 25(4), 506-508. Doi: 10.5021/ad.2013.25.4.506.


Roth, M. M. (2009). Specific pregnancy dermatoses. Dermatology Nursing, 21(2), 70-81.



Assessment of Fetal Well-Being


American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (7th ed.) Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). ACOG Committee opinion no.717: Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin and risk of birth defects. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 117(6), 1-3.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). ACOG Committee Opinion no. 650: Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 126.e,135-42. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/co650.pdf?dmc=1


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). ACOG committee Opinion no. 365: Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: Expanded recommendations. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1-4. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/co635.pdf?dmc=1


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). ACOG practice bulletin no. 95: Anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 112 (1), 201-207. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Citation/2008/07000/ACOG_Practice_Bulletin_No__95__Anemia_in_Pregnancy.41.aspx


American Diabetes Association (2018). Standards of medical care in diabetes. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://professional.diabetes.org/content-page/standards-medical-care-diabetes


American Pregnancy Association. (2016). Cordocentesis : Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling (PUBS) Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: http://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/cordocentesis/


Bickley, L.S., & Szilagyi, P.G. (2008). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (10th ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Broussard, A. B., & Hurst, H. M. (2009). Antepartum-intrapartum complications. In M. T. Verklan & M. Walden (Eds.). AWHONN Core Curriculum For Neonatal Intensive Care Nursing. Philadelphia: Saunders.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Iron and iron deficiency anemia. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/iron.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Guidelines for vaccinating pregnant women. ACIP guidelines. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pregnancy/hcp/guidelines.html


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Prevention of varicella. Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices MMWR 62(28):574-576.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR 64 (RR-3),1-137. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm


Davidson, M. B., London, M., & Ladewig, P. (2007). Old's Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health Across the Lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Hensley, J. G. (2009). Leg cramps and restless leg syndrome during pregnancy. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 54(3), 211-218.


Hurst, H. (2007). Section 2: Selected pregnancy complications (bleeding in pregnancy). In S. Perry, K. Cashion & D. Lowdermilk, Eds. Clinical Companion For Maternity And Women's Health Care. New York: Elsevier.


Johnson, E., & Kim, E. (2011). Urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/452604-overview


King, T., & Brucker, M. (2011). Pharmacology for Women’s Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Rioux, F.M., & LeBlanc, C.P. (2007). Iron supplementation during pregnancy: What are the risks and benefits of current practice? Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 32, 282-288


Roca, P. (2015). Amniocentesis. Medscape. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1997955-overview#a5


Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. (2009). Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12), 869-873.


Springer, S. (2016). Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/936318-overview#a1


United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2014). Gestational diabetes screening. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-screening


World Health Organization. (2012). Guideline: Daily iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnant women. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77770/1/9789241501996_eng.pdf


Varney, J., Kriebs, J. M., & Gegor, C. L. (2015). Varney's Midwifery (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.


Zheng, T. (2012). Comprehensive Handbook of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2nd ed.) Phoenix Medical Press LLC.

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