Neurologic Disorders

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Association (2017). Alzheimer’s Association Report: 2017 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:

Cummings, J.L., Isaacson, R.S., Schmitt, F.A. & Velting, D.M. (2015). A practical algorithm for managing Alzheimer’s disease: what, when, and why? Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2(3), 307-323 Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:

Smart, C.M. et al. Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group. (2017). Non-pharmacologic interventions for older adults with subjective cognitive decline: Systematic review, meta-analysis and preliminary recommendations. Neuropsychology Review. 27 (3), 245-257. doi: 10.1007/s11065-017-9342-8

Bell’s Palsy

Baugh, R., Basura, G., Ishii, L Schwartz, S., Drumheller, C., Burkholder, R. (2013). Clinical practice guideline: Bell’s palsy. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 149(3S), S1-S27. DOI: 10.1177/0194599813505967

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2003). Bell’s palsy fact sheet. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:  

Taylor, D., Zacariah, S. (2017). Bell palsy clinical presentation. Medscape. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from: 

Zandian, A., Osiro, S., Hudson, R., Ali, I., Matusz, P., Tubbs, S. R., & Loukas, M. (2014). The neurologist’s dilemma: A comprehensive clinical review of Bell’s palsy, with emphasis on current management trends. Medical Science Monitor, 20, 83-90.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2008). Clinical practice guideline on the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from:  

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2008). Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Evidence Report. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from: 

Hall, B., Lee, H. C., Fitzgerald, H., Byrne, B., Barton, A., & Lee, A. H. (2013).Investigating the effectiveness of full-time wrist splinting and education in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized control trial. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67, 448-459. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from: 

Huisstede, B. M., Friden, J., Coert, J. H., &Hoogvliet, P. (2014). Carpal tunnel syndrome: Hand surgeons, hand therapists, and physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians agree on a multidisciplinary treatment guideline – results from the European hand guide study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(22), 2253-2263. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from: 

Kleopa, K.A. (2015). In the Clinic. Carpel Tunnel Syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine. 163(5); ITC1. Doi: 10.7326/AITC201509010

Cluster Headaches

Blanda, M., Dafer, R., (2017). Neurology: Cluster headache. Drugs and Diseases. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from: 

International Headache Society. (2013). The International Classification Of Headache Disorders, 3rd ed. Cephalalgia, 33(9), 629- 808.

Robbins, M.S., et al. (2016). Treatment of cluster headache: The American Headache Society Evidence-Based Guideline. Headache. 56 (7), 1093-1106.

Tepper, S.J., & Stillman, M.J. (2013). Cluster headache: Potential options for medically refractory patients (When all else fails). Headache, 1183- 1190. 


Anderson, P. (2015). Simple vision test detects concussion in young athletes. Medscape. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Beckwith, JG., Greenwald, RM., Chu, JJ, Crisco, JJ, Rowson, SM., Duma, SM…Collins, MW. (2013). Timing of concussion diagnosis is related to head impact exposure prior to injury.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 45(4), 747-54.  DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182793067

Bernhardt, D. (2014). Concussion. Medscape. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Brown, N., Rebekah, M., Michael, O., David, G., Michael, C., & William, M. (2014). Effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. Pediatrics, 2013-2125. Doi:10.1542/peds.2013-2125

Clinical Policy: Neuroimaging and decision making in adult mild traumatic brain Injury in the acute setting. (2008). Annals of Emergency Medicine, 714-748. Doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.08.021

Dawodu, S. (2015). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) - Definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology. Medscape. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Giza, C., & Hoyda, D. (2001). The neuro metabolic cascade of concussion. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 228-235. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Grady, M., Master, C., & Gioia, G. (2012). Concussion pathophysiology: Rationale for physical and cognitive rest. Pediatric Annals, 377-382. Doi: 10.3928/00904481-20120827-12

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Injury prevention & control: Traumatic brain injury. (2015). Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

LaFevor, ME., Bretzin, AC., Savage, JL. Petit, KM., Covassin, T. (2016). Neurocognitive impairments among athletes with a history of multiple concussions Impact Research Report 6, 2-6. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Lubit, R. (2013). Postconcussive syndrome psychiatric care. Medscape. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Mayer, C., Huber, B., & Peskind, E. (2013). Traumatic brain injury, neuro inflammation, and post-traumatic headaches. Headache, 53(9), 1523-1530. doi:10.1111/head.12173

McConnell, A., & Shubrook, J. (2009). Concussion care: Simple strategies, big payoffs. The Journal of Family Practice, 58(8), 410-414. 

McCrory, et al., P. (2013). Consensus statement on concussion in sport: The 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 250-258. Doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092313

McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Dvorak J, et al. (2106). Consensus statement on concussion in sport—the 5th International Conference On Concussion In Sport Held In Berlin. Br J Sports Med Doi: 10.1136/Bjsports-2017-097699

Meehan, W. (2011). Medical therapies for concussion. Clinical Sports Medicine, 115-Ix. Doi:10.1016/j.csm.2010.08.003.

Mucha, A., Collins, M., Elbin, R., Furman, J., Troutman-Enseki, C., DeWolf, R., Kontos, A. (2014). A brief vestibular/ocular motor screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions preliminary findings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2479-2486. Doi: 10.1177/0363546514543775

Ouellet, MC, Beaulieu-Bonneau, S., & Morin, CM. (2015). Sleep-wake disturbances after traumatic brain injury.  Lancet Neurol, 14: 746–57

Packard, R. (2008). Chronic post-traumatic headache: Associations with mild traumatic brain injury, concussion, and post-concussive disorder. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 12(1), 67-73. Doi: 10.1007/s11916-008-0013-6

Pangilinan, P. (2014). Classification and complication of traumatic brain injury. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: 

Reddy, C., Collins, M., Lovell, M., & Kontos, A. (2013). Efficacy of amantadine treatment on symptoms and neurocognitive performance among adolescents following sports-related concussion (B. Kaplan & J. Bogner, Eds.). Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(4), 260-265. Doi: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e318257fbc6

Russo, A., D'Onofrio, F., Conte, F., Tetretta, V., Tedeschi, G., & Tessitore, A. (2014). Post-traumatic headaches: A clinical overview. Neurological Sciences, 35(1 Suppl), 153-156. Doi: 10.1007/s10072-014-1758-9

Samadani, U., Reyes, M., Li, M., Lamm, E., Schneider, J., Shimunov, D., & Juang, P. (2015). Eye tracking detects disconjugate eye movements associated with structural traumatic brain injury and concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32(8), 548-566. Doi:10.1089/neu.2014.3687

Silverberg ND, Iverson GL, McCrea M, Apps JN, Hammeke TA, Thomas DG. (2016). Activity-related symptom exacerbations after pediatric concussion. JAMA Pediatrics. 170(10):946-953. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.1187

Scorza, K., Raleigh, M., & O'Connor, F. (2012). Current concepts in concussion: Evaluation and management. American Family Physician, 85(2), 123-132. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from:

The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. (2013). Cephalgia, 33(9), 629-808. Doi: 10.1177/0333102413485658

Thomas, D., Apps, J., Hoffman, R., McCrea, M., & Hammeke, T. (2015). Benefits of strict rest after acute concussion: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 135(2), 213-223. Doi:10.1542/peds.2014-0966

Ventura, R., Jancuska, J., Balcer, L., Galetta, S., & Biousse, V. (2015). Diagnostic tests for concussion: Is vision part of the puzzle? Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 73-81. Doi:10.1097/WNO.0000000000000223

Zemyan Polito, M., W. G. Thompson, J., & A. DeFina, P. (2010). A review of the International Brain Research Foundation novel approach to mild traumatic brain injury presented at the International Conference on Behavioral Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22(9), 504-509 C. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00540.x


Alzheimer’s Association. (2015). What is dementia? Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from

Alzheimer’s Association (2017). 2017 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC

Kales, H.C. (2015). Assessment and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. BMJ, 350 doi:

Quinn, J. (2014). Dementia. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-0-470-67424-6

Tampi, R. (2012). Treating Behavioral Disturbances in Dementia, Using Evidence to Optimize Care. Journal of Addiction & Research Therapy. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from

World Health Organization. (2017.) Dementia. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from:


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Meningitis. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: 

Hasbun, R. (2017). Meningitis treatment and management. Medscape. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Infectious Diseases Society of America. (2004). Practice Guidelines for the Management of Bacterial Meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 39 (9) 1267-1284. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

National Institutes of Health. (2014). Meningitis and encephalitis fact sheet. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Migraine Headaches

American Migraine Foundation. (2013). Magnesium. Headache Toolbox. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Chawla, J. (2018). Migraine headache. Medscape. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: 

Estemalik, E. & Tepper, S. (2013). Preventive treatment in migraine and the new US guidelines. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment, 9, 709-720. Doi: 10.2147/NDT.S33769

International Headache Society. (2013). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia, 33(9), 629-808. 

Liebman, T.N., Crystal, S.C. (2011). What is the evidence that riboflavin can be used for migraine prophylaxis? Einstein Journal of Biological Medicine 27: 7-9. 

Loder, E., Burch, R., Rizzoli, P. (2012). The 2012 AHS/AAN guidelines for prevention of episodic migraine: A summary and comparison with other recent clinical practice guidelines. Headache, 52, 930-945. Doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02185.x

Shapiro, R. E. (2012). Preventive treatment of migraine. Headache, 52(S2), 65-69. 

Smitherman, T. A., Burch, R., Sheikh, H., & Loder, E. (2013). The prevalence, impact and treatment of migraine and severe headaches in the United States: A review of statistics from national surveillance studies. Headache, 53, 427-436.

Parkinson’s Disease

AbbVie. (2018). Duopa prescribing information. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Hirsch, L., Jette, N., Frolkis, A., Steeves, T., & Pringsheim, T.  (2016). The Incidence of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  Neuroepidemiology, 46, 292-300. doi: 10.1159/000445751

International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. MDS Rating Scales. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Kluger, B., Fox, S., Timmons, S., Katz, M., Galifinanakis, N., Subramanian, I., & Miyasaki, J. (2017).  Palliative care and Parkinson's disease: Meeting summary and recommendations for clinical research. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 37, 19-26.  doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.01.008 

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). (2017). Parkinson’s Disease in Adults (NICE guideline NG71).  Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: 

Postuma, R., Berg, D., Stern, M., Poewe, W., Olanow, C., Oertel, W., & Deuschl, G. (2015). MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 30(12), 1591-1599. 

Tarsy, D., Hurtig, H., Dashe, J. (2017). Pharmacologic treatment of Parkinson disease. UpToDate.  Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Restless Leg Syndrome

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., pp. 410-3). (2013). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Amos, L., Grekowicz, M., Kuhn, E., Olstad, J., Collins, M., Norris, N., & D'Andrea, L. (2014). Treatment of pediatric restless leg syndrome. Clinical Pediatrics, 53(4), 331-336. Doi: 10.1177/0009922813507997

Bozorg, A. (2017). Restless legs syndrome. EMedicine Drugs & Disease. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from 

Bozorg, J., & Benbadis, S. (2017). Restless legs syndrome clinical presentation. Medscape: Drugs & Diseases. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from 

Burbank, F., Buchfuhrer, M., & Kopjar, B. (2013). Improving sleep for patients with restless legs syndrome. Part II: Meta-analysis of vibration therapy and drugs approved by the FDA for treatment of restless legs syndrome. Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome, 3, 11-22. doi:10.2147/JPRLS.S40356

Burbank, F., Buchfuhrer, M., & Kopjar, B. (2013). Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part I: Pooled analysis of two prospective, double-blind, sham-controlled, multi-center, randomized clinical studies of the effects of vibrating pads on RLS symptoms. Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome, 3, 1-10. doi:10.2147/JPRLS.S40354

Garcia-Borreguero, D., Paul Stillman, P., Benes, H., Buschmann, H., Chaudhuri, R., Gonzalez Rodríguez, V., Zucconi, M. (2011). Algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in primary care. BMC Neurology, 11, 28-28. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from 

International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. 2012 Revised IRLSSG Diagnostic Criteria for RLS. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from: 

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2017). Center for Restless Leg Syndrome. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from 

Klingelhoefer, L., Cova, A., Gupta, B., & Chaudhuri, K. (2014). A review of current treatment strategies for restless legs syndrome (Willis–Ekbom disease). Clinical Medicine, 14(5), 520-524. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from 

Kume, A. (2014). Gabapentin enacarbil for the treatment of moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease): 600 or 1,200 dose? Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 249-262. doi:10.2147/NDT.S30160

Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet. (2017). NIH Publication No. 17-4847. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from:

Silber, M., Becker, P., Earley, C., Garcia-Borreguero, D., & Ondo, W. (2013). Willis-Ekbom Disease Foundation revised consensus statement on the management of restless legs syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc., 88(9), 977-986. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.06.016

Toro, B. (2014). New treatment options for the management of restless leg syndrome. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 46(4), 227-232. doi:10.1097/JNN.0000000000000068

Ulrike, M.H. (2015). Medical devices for restless legs syndrome – clinical utility of the Relaxis pad. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 1:1789-1794.


Brignole M, Hamdan MH. (2012). New concepts in the assessment of syncope. J Am CollCardiol, 59(18):1583-1591.

Numeroso, F., Mossini, G., Cervellin, G. (2017). Role of emergency department observation units in the management of patients with unexplained syncope: a critical review and meta-analysis. Clin Exp Emerg Med. 4(4): 201-207. doi: 10.15441/ceem.17.231

Shen, W.K., et al. (2017). 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation, Retrieved Jan. 15, 2018, from: 

Tension Headaches

Blanda, M. (2017). Tension Headache. Medscape. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: 

International Headache Society. (2013). The International Classification Of Headache Disorders, 3rd ed. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Taylor, F.R. (2017). Tension-type headache in adults: acute treatment. UpToDate. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: 

Transient Ischemic Attack

Benjamin, E.J., Blaha, M.J., Chiuve, S.E., et al on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee. (2017). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 135(10): e244–e293. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485. 

Coutts, S. B. (2017). Diagnosis and management of transient ischemic attack. Continuum , 23(1), 82-92. doi:10.1212/CON.0000000000000424 

Gupta, H. V., Farrell, A. M., & Mittal, M. K. (2014). Transient ischemic attacks: predictability of future ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack events. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 27-35.

Kernan, W. N., Ovbiagele, B., Black, H. R., Bravata, D. M., Chimowitz, M. I., Ezekowitz, M. D., Wilson, J. A. (2014). Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 45(7), 2160-2236. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000024 

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Benoliel, R., Sharav, Y., Haviv Y., et al (2017). Tic, Triggering, and Tearing: From CTN to SUNHA. Headache, 57(6):997-1009

Cruccu, G., Finnerup, N., Jensen, T., et al (2016) Trigeminal Neuralgia. Neurology, 87:220-228.

Gronseth G., Cruccu, G., Alksne, J., et al (2008). Practice Parameter: The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Neurology, 71; 1183-1190

International Headache Society. (2013). The International Classification Of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Retrieved March 13, 2018, from:

Zakrzewska J., Linskey M. (2015). Trigeminal Neuralgia. BMJ, 350:h1238

Zakrzewska J., Linskey M. (2016). Trigeminal Neuralgia. Clinical Evidence Handbook. American Family Physician, 94(2): 133-135.

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