Gastrointestinal Disorders

Acute Gastroenteritis


Alexandraki, I., Smetana, G. W. (2017). Acute viral gastroenteritis in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 9, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-viral-gastroenteritis-in-adults


Allos, B. (2017). Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Campylobacter infection. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 9, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-campylobacter-infection


Ashkenazi, S. (2016). Shigella infection: Treatment and prevention in children. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 9, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/shigella-infection-treatment-and-prevention-in-children


Chaney, A. (2016). Fast Facts About GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs Need to Know in a Nutshell. Chapter 5: Diarrhea. Springer Publishing, New York: NY.


Lamont, J. T. (2016). Clostridium difficile infection in adults: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 9, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis


Lee, B. E., & Pang, X.-L. (2013). New strains of norovirus and the mystery of viral gastroenteritis epidemics. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(16), 1381-1382. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.130426


Prescilla, R.P. (2016). Pediatric Gastroenteritis Treatment and Management. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 9, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/964131-treatment


Riddle, M.S., DuPont, H.L., Connor, B.A. (2016). ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 41(5): 602-622.


Zofran. Drugs.com. Retrieved Feb. 9, 2018, from: https://www.drugs.com/pro/zofran.html



Appendicitis


American College of Emergency Physicians. (2010). Evaluation and Management of Emergency Department Patients with Suspected Appendicitis. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.acep.org/MobileArticle.aspx?id=47648&coll_id=618&parentid=740


Kirkil, C., Yigit, M. V., & Aygen, E. (2014). Long-term results of nonoperative treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, 25(4), 393-397. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.7192


Jacob, B., Rebarber, A. (2017). Acute appendicitis in pregnancy. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-appendicitis-in-pregnancy


Martin, R. (2017). Acute appendicitis in adults: clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-appendicitis-in-adults-clinical-manifestations-and-differential-diagnosis


Martin, R & Kang, S.K. (2017). Acute appendicitis in adults: Diagnostic evaluation. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-appendicitis-in-adults-diagnostic-evaluation


Mohammed, A., Shanbhag, V., Ashfaque, K. (2014). A Comparative Study of RIPASA Score and ALVARADO Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis. Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research, 8(11), NC03-05. doi: 10.7860/jcdr/2014/9055.5170


Ramone, R., et al. (2016). Diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. EAES consensus development conference 2015. Surgical Endoscopy 30(11): 4668-4690. doi: 10.1007/s00464-016-5245-7


Wesson, D. (2017). Acute appendicitis in children: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-appendicitis-in-children-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis



Childhood Obesity


American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight. (2016). Algorithm for the Assessment and Management of Childhood Obesity in Patients 2 Years and Older. Retrieved Feb. 19, 2018, from: https://ihcw.aap.org/Documents/Assessment%20%20and%20Management%20of%20Childhood%20Obesity%20Algorithm_FINAL.pdf


Barlow, S. (2007). Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: Summary report. Pediatrics. 120 (Suppl 164). S164-S192. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2329C


Burns, C., Dunn, A., Brady, M., Starr, N., Blosser, C., & Garzon, D. (2017). Pediatric Primary Care (6th Ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood Obesity Facts, 2011-2014. (2015). Retrieved Feb. 19, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html


Fitch, A., Fox, C., Bauerly, K., Gross, A., Heim, C., Judge-Dietz, J., Webb, B. (2013). Prevention And Management Of Obesity For Children And Adolescents. Institute For Clinical Systems Improvement. Retrieved Feb. 19, 2018, from: https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/47102/prevention-and-management-of-obesity-for-children-and-adolescents


Richardson, B. (2017). Pediatric Primary Care: Practice Guidelines for Nurses (3rd Ed.). Burlington: Bartlett & Jones Learning LLC


Rogers, V., Hart, P., Motyka, E., Rines, E., Vine, J., Deatrick, D. (2013). Impact of let’s go! 5-2-1-0: A community-based, multisetting childhood obesity prevention program. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 38(9). 1010-1020. Doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jst057


Spear, B., Barlow, S., Ervin, C., Ludwig, D., Saelens, B., Schetzina, K., Taveras, E. (2007). Recommendations for treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics, 120 (Suppl254), S254-S288. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2329F


Styne, D.M., Arslanian, S.A., Connor, E.L., et al. (2017). Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 102(3):709-757.


Whitlock, E., O’Connor, E., Williams, S., Beil, T., Lutz, K. (2010). Effectiveness of weight management interventions in children: A targeted systematic review for the USPSTF. Pediatrics, 125(2), E396-418. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1955.



Cholecystitis


Chick, J. F., Chauhan, N. R., Paulson, V. A., Adduci, A. J. (2013). Cholecystocolonic fistula mimicking acute cholecystitis diagnosed unequivocally by computed tomography. Emerg Radiol, 20(6), 569-572. Do: 10.1007/s10140-013-1132-x.


Knab, L. M., Boller, A. M., & Mahvi, D. M. (2014). Cholecystitis. Surg Clin North Am, 94(2), 455-470. Doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2014.01. 005.


Tazuma, S., Unno, M., Igarashi, Y. et al. (2017). Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis 2016. Journal of Gastroenterology. 52: 276. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-016-1289-7


Zakko, S.F., Afdhal, N. H. (2016). Acute cholecystitis: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-cholecystitis-pathogenesis-clinical-features-and-diagnosis


Zakko, S.F. Patient education: gallstones (the basics). (2012). UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/gallstones-beyond-the-basics



Colic


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Colic Relief Tips for Parents. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/crying-colic/Pages/Colic.aspx


Benninga, M., Nurko, S., Faure, C., Hyman, P.E., St. James Roberts, I., Schechter, N.L. (2016). Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: Neonate/toddler. Gastroenterology, 150(6), p. 1443-1455.e2. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.016


Deshpande, P.G. (2017). Colic. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/927760-overview


Johnson, J.D., Crocker, K., Chang, E. (2015). Infantile colic: Recognition and treatment. American Family Physician, 92(7), p. 577-582. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p577.html


Perry, R., Hunt, K., Ernst, E. (2011). Nutritional Supplements and Other Complementary Medicines for Infantile Colic: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics 127(4):720-33. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2098.


Turner, T.L., Palamountain, S. (2017). Patient education: Colic (excessive crying) in infants (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/colic-excessive-crying-in-infants-beyond-the-basics



Constipation


American College of Gastroenterology. Constipation and Defecation Problems. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: http://patients.gi.org/topics/constipation-and-defection-problems/


American Gastroenterological Association. (2013). American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement on Constipation. Gastroenterology, 144, 211-217. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(12)01545-4/fulltext


Andromanakos, N. P., Pinis, S. I., & Kostakis, A. I. (2015). Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic

approaches, and therapeutic options. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 27(3), 204-214. Doi: 10.1097/meg.0000000000000288.


Chaney, A. (2016). Chapter 4: Constipation. In: Fact Facts about GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs Need to Know in a Nutshell. Springer Publishing, New York: NY.


Goroll, A. H., Mulley, A. G. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of the Adult Patient (7th ed., pp. 459–628). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Roque, M. V., Bouras, E. P. (2015). Epidemiology and management of chronic constipation in elderly patients. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 10, 19–930. doi:10.2147/CIA.S54304


Wald, A. (2018). Management of chronic constipation in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-chronic-constipation-in-adults



Crohn’s Disease


Farraye, F., Odze, R., Eden, J., & Itzkowitz, S. (2014). Managing CRC risk in IBD patients. Colorectal Neoplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Diagnosis and Management. American Gastroenterological Association. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://www.gastro.org/guidelines/managing-crc-risk-in-ibd-patients-1


Farrell, R. J. & Peppercorn, M. A. (2018). Overview of the medical management of mild to moderate Crohn disease in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-medical-management-of-mild-low-risk-crohn-disease-in-adults


Fleshner, P. (2018). Operative management of Crohn disease or the small bowel, colon, and rectum. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018 from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/operative-management-of-crohn-disease-of-the-small-bowel-colon-and-rectum


Kornbluth, A., & Sachar, D. B. (2010). Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105(3), 501-523. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.727


Lee, B. E., & Pang, X.-L. (2013). New strains of norovirus and the mystery of viral gastroenteritis epidemics. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(16), 1381-1382. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.130426


Nguyen, G.C., Loftus, E.V., Hirano, I., and AGA Institute Clinical Guidelines Committee. (2017). American Gastroenterological Association Institute Guideline on the Management of Crohn’s Disease After Surgical Resection. Gastroenterology. 152(1): 271-275 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.10.038


Peppercorn, M. A. (2018). Clinical manifestations, diagnosis and prognosis of Crohn disease in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-crohn-disease-in-adults



Diverticulitis


Chaney, A. (2016). Diverticular Disease. In: Fast Facts About GI and Liver Diseases for Nurses: What APRNs need to know in a nutshell. Springer Publishing: New York, NY.


Collins, D. Winter, D. C. (2015). Modern concepts in diverticular diseae. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 49(5), 358-369.


Goroll, A. H., Mulley, A. G. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Mangement of the Adult Patient, 7th ed. (pp. 459-628). Phildelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mosadeghi, S., Bhuket, T., Stollman, N. (2015). Diverticular disease: evolving concepts in classification, presentation, and management. Current Opinions in Gastroenterology, 31(1), 50-55. doi: 10.1097/mog.0000000000000145


Pemberton, J. H. (2018). Acute colonic diverticulitis: Medical management . UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-colonic-diverticulitis-medical-management


Pemberton, J. H. (2017). Colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease: Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/colonic-diverticulosis-and-diverticular-disease-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-pathogenesis


Vennix, S., Morton, D. G., Hahnloser, D., Lange, J. F., & Bemelman, W. A. (2014). Systematic review of evidence and consensus on diverticulitis: an analysis of national and international guidelines. Colorectal Disease 16(11), 866-878. doi: 10.1111/codi.12659.


Wilkins, T., Embry, K., George, R. (2013). Diagnosis and management of acute diverticulitis. American Family Physician. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p612.html



Encopresis


Borowitz, S. (2017). Encopresis. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/928795-overview


Burns, C.E. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care (5th ed.), Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier


Coehlo, D.P. (2011). Encopresis: a medical and family approach. Pediatric Nursing, 37(3):107-112. Doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.08.063


Koppen, I. J. N., von Gontard, A., Chase, J., Cooper, C. S., Rittig, C. S., Bauer, S. B., Homsy, Y., Yang, S. S., & Benninga, M. A. (2015). Management of functional nonretentive fecal incontinence in children: Recommendations from the International Children’s Continence Society. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 12, 56-64.


Marcdante, K.J., Kliegman, R.M. (Ed.) (2015). Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics (7th ed.), Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.


Nurko, S., Zimmerman, L.A. (2014). Evaluation and Treatment of Constipation in Children and Adolescents. American Family Physician. 90(2): 82-90. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p82.html


Olaru, C., Diaconescu, S., Trandafir, L., Gimiga, N., Olaru, R. A., Stefanescu, G., Ciubotariu, G., Burlea, M., & Iorga, M. (2016). Chronic functional constipation and encopresis in children in relationship with the psychosocial environment. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, doi:10.1155/2016/7828576



Functional Abdominal Pain: Pediatric


Almadhoun (2012). Managing chronic abdominal pain in children. Understanding physical and behavioral components of functional abdominal pain. Contemporary Pediatrics. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://contemporarypediatrics.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-pediatrics/news/modernmedicine/modern-medicine-news/managing-chronic-abdominal-pain-chi?page=full


Anderson, P. (2011). Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children May Be Migraine. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/742571


Brown, L.K., Beattie, R.M., Tighe, M.P. (2016). Practical management of functional abdominal pain in children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 101(7): 677-683.


Chacko, M.R. (2018.) Functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents: Management in primary care. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/functional-abdominal-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-management-in-primary-care


Khan, S. (2012). Functional abdominal pain in children. American College of Gastroenterology. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://patients.gi.org/topics/functional-abdominal-pain-in-children/


McFerron, B.A., Waseem, S. (2012). Chronic recurrent abdominal pain. Pediatrics in Review 33(11). Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/content/33/11/509


Moses, J. (2012). Recurrent Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Family Practice Notebook. Retrieved Feb. 20, 2018, from: http://www.fpnotebook.com/Surgery/Peds/RcrntAbdmnlPnSyndrm.htm



Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease


Boeckxstaens, G., El-Serag, H. B., Smout, A. J., Kahrilas, P. J. (2015). Symptomatic reflux disease: the present, the past and the future. Postgraduate Medical Journal 91(1071), 46-54. Doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-306393rep


Gerson, L. (2012). Treatment of gastroesophagla reflux disease during pregnancy. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 8, 763-764. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3966174/


Kahrilas, P. (2016). Medical management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/medical-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-adults


Katz, P., Gerson, L., Vela, M. (2013). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 108, 308–328. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.444


Patt, M.G. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Treatment & Management. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/176595-treatment


Shaheen, N. (2013). Highlights from the new ACG guidelines for the diagnosis and management of GERD. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 9, 377-379. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736794/



Hemorrhoids


Andromanakos, N. P., Pinis, S. I., Kostakis, A. I. (2015). Chronic severe constipation: current pathophysiological aspects, new diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic options. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 27(3), 204-214. Doi: 10.1097/meg.0000000000000288.


Bleday, R. Breen, E. (2017). Hemorrhoids: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hemorrhoids-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis


Bleday, R., Breen, E. (2017). Home and office treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/home-and-office-treatment-of-symptomatic-hemorrhoids


Mounsey, A. L., Halladay, J., Sadiq, T. S. (2011). Hemorrhoids. American Family Physician, 84(2), 204-210.


Wald, A., Bharucha, A. E., Cosman, B. C., Whitehead, W. E. (2014). ACG clinical guideline: Management of Benign Anorectal Disorders. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 109(8), 1141-1157. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.190



Hepatitis, Viral


American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. (2017). HCV Guidance: Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: www.hcvguidelines.org/


Cacouba, P., Granagia, L, Comarmonda, C., Zignegoe, A. (2014). Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Digestive and Liver Disease 46 (5): S165–S173.


CDC. (2017). Viral Hepatitis. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/populations/1945-1965.htm


CDC. (2018). 2018 Adult Schedule by Health Conditions in Easy-to-read Format for Patients. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/easy-to-read/adult-conditions-easyread.html


CDC. (2015). Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis: United States, 2015. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2015surveillance/commentary.htm


CDC. (2015). 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. Viral Hepatitis. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/hepatitis.htm


CDC. (2015). Viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for Health Professionals. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav/havfaq.htm#general


Gilroy, R., Anand, B. (2017). Hepatitis A. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/177484-overview


Kappus, R.K., Sterling, M. (2013). Extrahepatic manifestations of acute hepatitis b virus infection. Gastroenterology & Hepatology 9 (2): 123-125.


Lampertico, P., et al. (2017). EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Journal of Hepatology. 67(2):370-398. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: http://www.easl.eu/medias/cpg/management-of-hepatitis-B-virus-infection/English-report.pdf


Mast, E.E, et al. (2006). A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Part I: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents and Part II: Immunization of Adults. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5416a1.htm AND https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5516a1.htm



Inflammatory Bowel Disease


Kornbluth, A., & Sachar, D. B. (2010). Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol, 105(3), 501-523; quiz 524. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.727


Lichtenstein, G. R., Hanauer, S. B., & Sandborn, W. J. (2009). Management of Crohn's Disease in Adults. Am J Gastroenterol, 104(2), 465-483.


Rowe, W.A. (2017). Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treatment & Management. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/179037-treatment



Inguinal Hernia


Brooks, D.C., Hawn, M. (2017). Classification, clinical features, and diagnosis of inguinal and femoral hernias in adults. UptoDate. Retrieved Jan. 7, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/classification-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-inguinal-and-femoral-hernias-in-adults


Burcharth, J., Pedersen, M., Bisgaard, T., Pedersen, C., & Rosenberg, J. (2013). Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair. PloS One, 8(1), e54367.


Dabbas, N., Adams, K., Pearson, K., & Royle, G. T. (2011). Frequency of abdominal wall hernias: Is classical teaching out of date? JRSM Short Reports, 2(1), 5.


Fitzgibbons, R. J., Giobbie-Hurder, A., Gibbs, J. O., Dunlop, D. D., Reda, D. J., McCarthy, M., & Sarosi, G. A. (2006). Watchful waiting vs repair of inguinal hernia in minimally symptomatic men: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 295(3), 285-292.


Franz, M.G. (2007). The Biology of Hernia Formation. Surg Clin North Am, 88(1): 1-vii. doi 10.1016/j.suc.2007.10.007. Retrieved Jan. 7, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276402/


Hewitt, D.B. (2017). Groin hernia. JAMA. 317(24): 2560. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.1556. Retrieved Jan. 7, 2018, from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2633918


Ijpma, F. F. A., Boddeus, K. M., de Haan, H. H., & van Geldere, D. (2009). Bilateral round ligament varicosities mimicking inguinal hernia during pregnancy. Hernia, 13(1), 85-88.


Pawlak, M., Niebuhr, H. & Bury, K. (2015). Dynamic inguinal ultrasound: a diagnostic tool for hernia surgeons. Hernia, 19:1033. doi: 10.1007/s10029-015-1356-7


Ruhl, C. E., & Everhart, J. E. (2007). Risk factors for inguinal hernia among adults in the US population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(10), 1154-1161.


Sanjay, P., & Woodward, A. (2007). Single strenuous event: does it predispose to inguinal herniation? Hernia, 11(6), 493-496.


Simons, M.P., Aufenacker, T., Bay-Nielsen, M., et al. (2009). European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients. 13(4): 343-403.


Zöller, B., Ji, J., Sundquist, J., & Sundquist, K. (2013). Shared and non-shared familial susceptibility to surgically treated inguinal hernia, femoral hernia, incisional hernia, epigastric hernia, and umbilical hernia. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 217(2), 289-299.



Intussesception


Caruso, A.M., Pane, A., Scanu, A., Muscas, A., Garau, R., Caddeo, F., Mascia, L. (2017). Intussusception in children: Not only surgical treatment. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 6(1). Doi: 10.7363/060135


Chahine, A.A. (2017). Intussusception. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/930708-overview


Shalkow, J. (2015). Pediatric small bowel obstruction. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/930411-overview


Vo, N., Sato, T. (2017). Intussusception in children. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/intussusception-in-children



Irritable Bowel Syndrome


American Gastroenterological Association. Pharmacologic Management of IBS. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: http://www.gastro.org/guidelines/pharmacological-management-of-ibs


National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care. (2008). Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. London (UK). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK51953/


Padhy, S. K., Sahoo, S., Mahajan, S., & Sinha, S. K. (2015). Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it “irritable brain” or “irritable bowel”? Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, 6: 568-577. doi: 10.4103/0976-3147.169802


Wald, A. (2018). Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-adults


Weinberg, D. S., Smalley, W., Heidelbaugh, J. J., & Sultan, S. (2014). American Gastroenterological Association Institute Guideline on the Pharmacological Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology 147(5): 1146-1148. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(14)01089-0/fulltext



Nausea and Vomiting in Adults and Children


American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 189: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 131(1): e15-e30. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002456.


Anderson, W., Strayer, S. (2013). Evaluation of nausea and vomiting in adults: A case-based approach. American Family Physician; 88(6):371-379. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0915/p371.html


Brown, T. (2017). New Guidelines on Nausea, Vomiting in Pregnancy. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/890504


Consolini, D.M. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children. Merck Manual Online. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/symptoms-in-infants-and-children/nausea-and-vomiting-in-infants-and-children


Di Lorenzo, C. Patient education: Nausea and vomiting in infants and children (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/nausea-and-vomiting-in-infants-and-children-beyond-the-basics


Flake, Z., LINN, B., & Hornecker, J. (2015). Practical selection of antiemetics in the ambulatory setting. American Family Physician, 91(5):293-296. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p293.html


Furyk J.S., Meek, R., McKenzie, S. (2014). Drug treatment of adults with nausea and vomiting in primary care. BMJ. 349: 4714. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4714.full


Longstreth, G.F. (2016). Approach to the adult with nausea and vomiting. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-adult-with-nausea-and-vomiting


Schwartzberg, L.S. (2017). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: strategies for prevention and treatment. Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology 15(12): 906-913.



Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease


Attar, B. M., & Van Thiel, D. H. (2013). Current concepts and management approaches in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 481893. Doi: 10.1155/2013/481893


Chalasani, N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Diehl, A. M., Brunt, E. M., Cusi, K., Sanyal, A. J. (2012). The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. [Practice Guideline]. Hepatology, 55(6), 2005-2023. Doi: 10.1002/hep.25762


Corrado, R. L., Torres, D. M., Harrison, S. A. (2014). Review of treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Medical Clinics of North America, 98(1), 55-72. Doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2013.09.001


Machado, M. V., & Cortez-Pinto, H. (2013). Non-invasive diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A critical appraisal. Journal of Hepatology, 58(5), 1007-1019. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2012.11.021


Marzuillo, P., Grandone, A., Perrone, L., Miraglia Del Giudice, E. (2015). Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms in the pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The role of genetics. World Journal of Hepatology, 7(11), 1439-1443. Doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i11.1439


Schuppan, D., & Schattenberg, J. M. (2013). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: pathogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 28 Suppl 1, 68-76. Doi: 10.1111/jgh.12212


Sheth, S.G., Chopra, S. (2018). Epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults


Wilkins, T., Tadkod, A., Hepburn, I., Schade, R. R. (2013). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 88(1), 35-42.



Obesity


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology. (2016). AACE/ACE Algorithm for the Medical Care of Patients with Obesity. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://www.aace.com/files/guidelines/ObesityAlgorithm.pdf


Apovian, C., Aronne, L., Bessesen, D., McDonnell, D., Murad, D., Pagotto, U., Ryan, D., Still C. (2015). Pharmacological Management of Obesity: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: http://press.endocrine.org/doi/pdf/10.1210/jc.2014-3415


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult Obesity Facts. (2018). Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html


Jensen, M., Ryan, D., Apovian, C., Ard, J., Comuzzie, A., Donato, K., Hu, F., Hubbard, V., Jakicic, J., Kushner, R., Loria, C., Mille, B., Nonas, C., Pi-Sunyer, X., Stevens, J., Stevens, V., Wadden, T., Wolfe, B., & Yanovski, S. (2014). 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 63(25). Doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee


Obesity Action Coalition. Bariatric Surgery and Devices. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: http://www.obesityaction.org/obesity-treatments/bariatric-surgery


Obesity Medicine Association. (2018). Obesity Algorithm Clinical Guidelines for Obesity Treatment. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: www.obesityalgorithm.org. 2016-2017.



Peptic Ulcer Disease


American College of Gastroenterology. (2016). Peptic ulcer disease. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: http://patients.gi.org/topics/peptic-ulcer-disease


Chey, W.D., Leontiadis, G.I., Howden, C.W., Moss, S.F. (2017). ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection. American Journal of Gastroenterology 112:212.


Crowe, S. (2018). Treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-regimens-for-helicobacter-pylori?source=see_link


Fallone, C.A., Chiba, N., Van Zanteri, et al. (2016). The Toronto Consensus for Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Adults. Gastroenterology 15:51.


Fashner, J., Gitu, A. C. (2015). Diagnosis and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease and H. pylori Infection. Am Fam Physician, 91(4), 236-242.


Vakil, N.B. (2017). Peptic ulcer disease: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peptic-ulcer-disease-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis


Vakil, N.B. (2017). Peptic ulcer disease: Management. UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peptic-ulcer-disease-management



Pinworm Infection


Albenza (Albendazole). (2018). Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from https://online.epocrates.com/drugs/366/albendazole


CDC. Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm infection). (2013). Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/pinworm/index.html


Han, S. (2017). Pinworm (Enterobiasis). Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/225652-overview


Leder, K. (2018). Enterobiasis (pinworm) and trichuriasis (whipworm). UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/enterobiasis-pinworm-and-trichuriasis-whipworm


Wolfram, W. (2016). Enterobiasis. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/997814-overview



Pyloric Stenosis


Behrman, R. E., Kliegman, R., & Jenson, H. B. (2011). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.


Nazer, H. (2017). Pediatric Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis. Medscape. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/929829-overview


Olive, A., & Endom, E. (2017). Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. UpToDate. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis



Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Adult


International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. (2017). Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.iffgd.org/lower-gi-disorders/functional-abdominal-pain-syndrome.html


Penner, R.M., Fishman, M.B. (2017). UpToDate. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-adult-with-abdominal-pain


Yarze, J. C. & Friedman, L. S. (2016). Chapter 12: Chronic Abdominal Pain. In M. Feldman, L. S. Friedman, & L. J. Brandt (Eds.), Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 10th ed. 175-184.e3. Elsevier



Ulcerative Colitis


Basson, M.D. (2017). Ulcerative Colitis Treatment & Management. Medscape. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183084-treatment


Bressler, B., et al, for the Toronto Ulcerative Colitis Consensus Group. (2015). Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Medical Management of Nonhospitalized Ulcerative Colitis: The Toronto Consensus. Gastroenterology 148(5): 1035-1058.e3. Retrieved Feb. 22, 2018, from: http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(15)00303-0/abstract


Kornbluth, A., Sachar, D. B. (2010). Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105(3), 501-523. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.727


Osterman, M.T., Lichtenstein, G.R. (2016). Chapter 116: Ulcerative colitis. In M. Feldman, L.S. Friedman, & L.J. Brandt (Eds), Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 2023-2061. E12. Elsevier Saunders: Philadelphia, PA

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