Lactation and Breastfeeding


Benefits of Breastfeeding

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841.

Anatolitou, F. (2012). Human milk benefits and breastfeeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 1(1), 11-18.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2015). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44(1), 145-150. Accessed Nov. 14, 2017, at http://www.jognn.org/article/S0884-2175(15)31769-X/abstract?utm_source=awhonn.org

Bartick, M. C., Schwarz, E. B., Green, B. D., et al. (2016). Suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: Maternal and pediatric health outcomes and costs. Matern Child Nutr. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12366

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10(8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Gromada, K.K. (2007). Mothering multiples: Breastfeeding & caring for twins or more! (3rd ed.). Schaumburg, IL: La Leche League International.

Khan, J., Vesel, L., Bahl, R. & Martines, J. (2015). Timing of breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding during the first month of life: Effects on neonatal mortality and morbidity--a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19, 468-479.

Labiner-Wolfe, J. & Fein, S.B. (2013). How US mothers store and handle their expressed breast milk. Journal of Human Lactation, (29)1: 54-58.

Mohrbacher, N. & Kendall-Tackett, K. (2010). Breastfeeding made simple: Seven natural laws for nursing mothers (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. 

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W., (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91(9), 608-604.

World Health Organization. (2017). 10 Facts on Breastfeeding. Retrieved Nov. 14, 2017, from: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/breastfeeding/en/ 


Disadvantages of Breastfeeding

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841.

Anatolitou, F. (2012). Human milk benefits and breastfeeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 2012, 1(1), 11-18.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10 (8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Jones, K., Power, M, Queenan, J. & Schulkin, J. (2015). Racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 10(4), 186-196.

Khan, J., Vesel, L., Bahl, R. & Martines, J. (2015). Timing of breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding during the first month of life: Effects on neonatal mortality and morbidity--a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19, 468-479.

Mohrbacher, N. & Kendall-Tackett, K. (2010). Breastfeeding Made Simple: Seven Natural Laws for Nursing Mothers (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. 

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W., (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.



Contraindications to Breastfeeding

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841.

Anatolitou, F. (2012). Human milk benefits and breastfeeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 2012, 1(1), 11-18.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Best Practice for Expressing, Storing, and Handling Human Milk in the Hospitals, Homes, and Child Care Settings. Third Edition 2011. Frances Jones Human Milk Banking Association of North America.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10 (8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Khan, J., Vesel, L., Bahl, R. & Martines, J. (2015). Timing of breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding during the first month of life: Effects on neonatal mortality and morbidity--a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19, 468-479.

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W., (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.


Nutrition During Lactation

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10(8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Kolasa, K. M., Firnhaber, G., & Haven, K. (2015). Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 58(4), 893-901. doi: 10.1097/grf.0000000000000144

Linkages Project. (2004). Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation. Retrieved Nov. 14, 2017, from: https://coregroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Maternal-Nutrition-During-Pregnancy-and-Lactation.pdf

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W. (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.


Breast Care During Breastfeeding


Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2014). Clinical Protocol #4 Mastitis, revised. Breastfeeding Medicine 9(5), 239-243.

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10(8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Dennis, C.L., Jackson, K., & Watson, J. (2014). Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12), CD007366. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007366.pub2

Jackson, K.T., Dennis, C.L., (2016). Lanolin for the treatment of nipple pain in breastfeeding women: a randomized controlled trial. Matern Child Nutr. Doi: 10.111/men.12357

Mohrbacher, N. & Kendall-Tackett, K. (2010). Breastfeeding made simple: Seven Natural Laws for Nursing Mothers (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91(9), 608-604.


Techniques of Breastfeeding

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129 (3), 827-841.

Anatolitou, F. (2012). Human milk benefits and breastfeeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 1(1), 11-18.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10 (8). doi 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. (2012). Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552.

Colson, SD, Meek, J., & Hawdon, J.M. (2008). Optimal positions triggering primitive neonatal reflexes stimulating breastfeeding. Early Hum Dev 84 (7): 4414949. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378378207002423

Kent, J. C., Hepworth, A. R., Sherriff, J. L., et al. (2013). Longitudinal changes in breastfeeding patterns from 1 to 6 months of lactation. Breastfeed Med, 8(4), 401-407. Doi: 10.1089/bfm.2012.0141

Labiner-Wolfe, J. & Fein, S.B. (2013). How US mothers store and handle their expressed breast milk. Journal of Human Lactation, (29)1: 54-58.

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W. (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Perez-Escamilla, R., Martinez, J. L., & Segura-Perez, S. (2016). Impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding and child health outcomes: a systematic review. Maternal Child Nutrition. Doi: 10.1111/mcn.12294

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.


Determination of Adequate Intake When Breastfed

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), 827-841.

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2009). Clinical Protocol #3: Hospital Guidelines for the Use of Supplementary Feedings in the Healthy Term Breastfed Neonate. Breastfeeding Medicine, 4(3), 175-182. DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2009.9991

Anatolitou, F. (2012). Human milk benefits and breastfeeding. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine, 1(1), 11-18.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10 (8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Mohrbacher, N. & Kendall-Tackett, K. (2010). Breastfeeding Made Simple: Seven Natural Laws for Nursing Mothers (2nd Ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. 

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W. (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.


Storage of Breast Milk

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012).  Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.  Pediatrics, 129 (3), 827-841.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding.  Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015).  Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative.  International Breastfeeding Journal, 10 (8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Handa, D., et al. (2014). Do thawing and warming affect the integrity of human milk? Journal of Perinatology 34, 863-866.

Labiner-Wolfe, J. & Fein, S.B. (2013). How US mothers store and handle their expressed breast milk.  Journal of Human Lactation, (29)1: 54-58.

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W., (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015).  The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding.  American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.


Vitamin Supplementation of the Breastfed Infant


American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129 (3), 827-841.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010). Clinical Report: Diagnosis and prevention of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Pediatrics, 126 (5). doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2576

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

Bhar, R., Lellamo, A., Gupta, A., Smith, J., & Dadhich, P. (2015). Investing in breastfeeding – the world breastfeeding costing initiative. International Breastfeeding Journal, 10 (8). DOI 10.1186/s13006-015-0032-y. 

Kolasa, K. M., Firnhaber, G., & Haven, K. (2015). Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 58(4), 893-901. doi: 10.1097/grf.0000000000000144

Labiner-Wolfe, J. & Fein, S.B. (2013). How US mothers store and handle their expressed breast milk. Journal of Human Lactation, (29)1: 54-58.

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W. (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015). The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.

TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network. (2016). Drugs and lactation database. Retrieved Nov. 14, 2017, from https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm


Weaning from the Breasts

American Academy of Pediatrics (2012). Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129 (3), 827-841.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (2014). AWHONN position statement: Breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44, 83-88.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. (2012). Pediatrics. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552

Labiner-Wolfe, J. & Fein, S.B. (2013). How US mothers store and handle their expressed breast milk. Journal of Human Lactation, (29)1: 54-58. 

Moss, B., & Yeaton, W. (2013). Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: Potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 1224-1232. 

Schwarz, E., & Nothnagle, M. (2015).The maternal health benefits of breastfeeding. American Family Physician, 91 (9), 608-604.

World Health Organization. Breastfeeding. (2016). Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/


Physiology of Lactation

Buckley, S. J. (2015). Executive summary of hormonal physiology of childbearing: Evidence and implications for women, babies, and maternity care. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 24(3), 145-153. doi:10.1891/1058-1243.24.3.145

Marasco, L. (2014). Unsolved mysteries of the human mammary gland: Defining and redefining the critical questions from the lactation consultant's perspective. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 19(3-4), 271-288. doi:10.1007/s10911-015-9330-7

United States Breastfeeding Committee. (2015). Core Competencies in Breastfeeding Care and Services for All Health Professionals. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from: http://www.usbreastfeeding.org/p/cm/ld/fid=170


Medication Use and Lactation

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). Breastfeeding and medication. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from: https://www.aap.org/en-us/Pages/Breastfeeding-and-Medication.aspx

Sachs, H., COMM Drugs, & Committee On Drugs. (2013). The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: An update on selected topics. Pediatrics, 132(3), E796-E809. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1985

U.S. National Library of Medicine (2018). Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). Retrieved March 10, 2018, from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ newtoxnet/lactmed.htm


Alcohol Use During Breastfeeding

Eidelman, A., Schanler, R., Johnston, M., Landers, S., Noble, L., Szucs, K., and the Section on Breastfeeding. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), E827-E841. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3552

May, P. A., Hasken, J. M., Blankenship, J., Marais, A., Joubert, B., Cloete, M., Seedat, S. (2016). Breastfeeding and maternal alcohol use: Prevalence and effects on child outcomes and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Reproductive Toxicology, 63, 13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.05.002

Reece-Stremtan, S., Marinelli, K.A. & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2015). ABM clinical protocol #21: Guidelines for breastfeeding and substance use or substance use disorder. Breastfeeding Medicine, 10, 135-141.

Sachs, H., COMM Drugs, & Committee On Drugs. (2013). The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: An update on selected topics. Pediatrics, 132(3), E796-E809. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1985

U.S. National Library of Medicine (2016). Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). Retrieved March 10, 2018, from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ newtoxnet/lactmed.htm


Smoking During Breastfeeding

Napierala, M., Mazela, J., Merritt, T. A., & Florek, E. (2016). Tobacco smoking and breastfeeding: Effect on the lactation process, breast milk composition and infant development. A critical review. Environmental Research, 151, 321-338. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.002

Reece-Stremtan, S., Marinelli, K.A. & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2015). ABM clinical protocol #21: Guidelines for breastfeeding and substance use or substance use disorder, Revised 2015. Breastfeeding Medicine, 10, 135-141.

Task Force On Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2016). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Updated 2016 recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 138(5), e20162938-e20162938. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2938

U.S. National Library of Medicine (2016). Drugs and lactation database (LactMed). Retrieved March 10, 2018, from: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm


Candidal Infection of Nipples

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. Positive effect of HPA lanolin versus expressed breast milk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #8. (2010). Human Milk Storage Information for Home Use for Full-Term Infants. Breastfeeding Medicine, 5 (3) 127-130.

Amir, L.H., Cullinane, M., Garland, S.M., et al. The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2011; 11:54. 

Berens, P., Eglash, A., Malloy, M., Steube, A.M., and the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. ABM Clinical Protocol #26: Persistent Pain with
Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11 (2), 1-8.

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Chen, C., Hsu, M., Shen, C., Wang, C., Chang, S., Wu, K., Chen, S. (2011). Influence of breastfeeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 52, 85-92.

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.

Duncan, D. (2015). Candida and breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery, 23(2), 98-100.

La Leche League. How can I increase my milk supply? (2011.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/increase.html

La Leche League. How to prevent sore nipples. (2016.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/sore.html

La Leche League. My breasts feel extremely full and uncomfortable. What is happening and what can I do about it? (2016.) Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/engorgement.html

Mannel, R., & Dixon, I. (2015). Breastfeeding was going well and now my nipples hurt: Could my baby or I have a yeast infection? Journal of Human Lactation, 31(2), 319-320.

Newman, J. (2009). Candida Protocol. Breastfeeding Inc. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from https://www.breastfeedinginc.ca/informations/candida-protocol/

Seagraves, K., Brulte, A., McNeely, K. and Pritham, U. (2013). Supporting breastfeeding to reduce newborn readmissions for hyperbilirubinemia. Nursing for Women's Health, 17: 498–507.

Soldi, A., Tonetto, P., Varalda, A., & Bertino, E. (2011). Neonatal jaundice and human milk. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2485-87. 

Walker, M. (2013) Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3). 106-115.

Witt, A., Bolman, M., Kredit, S., & Vanic, A. (2016). Therapeutic breast massage in lactation for the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(1), 123-131.


Engorgement During Lactation

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. (2011). Positive effect of HPA lanolin versus expressed breast milk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011). The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 11:54. 

Berens, P., Brodribb, W. & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2016). ABM clinical protocol #20: Engorgement. Breastfeeding Medicine 11, 159-163.

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.

Lee, S. & Kelleher, S. L. (2016). Biological underpinnings of breastfeeding challenges: The role of genetics, diet, and environment on lactation physiology. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 311 (2), E405-E422.

Mangesi, L. & Zakarija-Grkovic, I. (2016). Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD006946. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006946.pub3

Pustotina, O. (2015). Management of mastitis and breast engorgement in breastfeeding women. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 29(19).

Walker, M. (2013). Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3). 106-115.


Flat or Inverted Nipples

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. (2011). Positive effect of HPA lanolin versus expressed breast milk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011.) The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 11:54. 

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Chen, C., Hsu, M., Shen, C., Wang, C., Chang, S., Wu, K., Chen, S. (2011). Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 52, 85-92.

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.

Duncan, D. (2015). Candida and breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery, 23(2), 98-100.

La Leche League. How can I increase my milk supply? (2011.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/increase.html 

La Leche League. How to prevent sore nipples. (2016.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/sore.html 

La Leche League. (2016.) My breasts feel extremely full and uncomfortable. What is happening and what can I do about it? Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/engorgement.html

Mannel, R., & Dixon, I. (2015). Breastfeeding was going well and now my nipples hurt: Could my baby or I have a yeast infection? Journal of Human Lactation, 31(2), 319-320.

Seagraves, K., Brulte, A., McNeely, K. and Pritham, U. (2013). Supporting breastfeeding to reduce newborn readmissions for hyperbilirubinemia. Nursing for Women's Health, 17: 498–507.

Soldi, A., Tonetto, P., Varalda, A., & Bertino, E. (2011). Neonatal jaundice and human milk. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2485-87. 

Walker, M. (2013) Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3). 106-115.

Witt, A., Bolman, M., Kredit, S., & Vanic, A. (2016). Therapeutic breast massage in lactation for the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(1), 123-131.


Inadequate Letdown Reflex

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. (2011.) Positive Effect of HPA lanolin versus expressed breast milk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011.) The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 11:54. 

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Chen, C., Hsu, M., Shen, C., Wang, C., Chang, S., Wu, K., Chen, S. (2011). Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 52, 85-92.

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.

Duncan, D. (2015). Candida and breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery, 23(2), 98-100.

La Leche League. How can I increase my milk supply? (2011.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/increase.html 

La Leche League. How to prevent sore nipples. (2016.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/sore.html 

La Leche League. (2016.) My breasts feel extremely full and uncomfortable. What is happening and what can I do about it? Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/engorgement.html

Mannel, R., & Dixon, I. (2015). Breastfeeding was going well and now my nipples hurt: Could my baby or I have a yeast infection? Journal of 
Human Lactation, 31(2), 319-320.

Seagraves, K., Brulte, A., McNeely, K. and Pritham, U. (2013). Supporting breastfeeding to reduce newborn readmissions for hyperbilirubinemia. Nursing for Women's Health, 17: 498–507.

Soldi, A., Tonetto, P., Varalda, A., & Bertino, E. (2011). Neonatal jaundice and human milk. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 24, 85-87. 

Walker, M. (2013) Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3). 106-115.

Witt, A., Bolman, M., Kredit, S., & Vanic, A. (2016). Therapeutic breast massage in lactation for the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(1), 123-131.


Jaundice During Lactation

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2010) ABM Clinical Protocol #22: Guidelines for Management of Jaundice in the Breastfeeding Infant Equal to or Greater Than Weeks’ Gestation The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. Breastfeeding Medicine 5(2) DOI: 10.1089=bfm.2010.9994

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. (2011). Positive effect of HPA lanolin versus expressed breast milk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011). The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 11:54. 

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Chen, C., Hsu, M., Shen, C., Wang, C., Chang, S., Wu, K., Chen, S. (2011). Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 52, 85-92.

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.

Duncan, D. (2015). Candida and breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery, 23(2), 98-100.

Maisels, M.J., Bhutani, V.K., Bogen, M., Newman, T.B., Stark, A.R., Watchko, J.F. (2009). Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 weeks’ gestation: an update with clarifications Pediatrics 124(4).

Seagraves, K., Brulte, A., McNeely, K. and Pritham, U. (2013). Supporting breastfeeding to reduce newborn readmissions for hyperbilirubinemia. Nursing for Women's Health, 17: 498–507.

Soldi, A., Tonetto, P., Varalda, A., & Bertino, E. (2011). Neonatal jaundice and human milk. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2485-87. 

Walker, M. (2013). Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3). 106-115.


Leaking Breasts During Lactation

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (20106). ABM Clinical Protocol #20: Engorgement, Revised 2016. Breastfeeding Medicine 11,(4) 159-163.

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Kaiser Permanente. (2007). How to care for leaking breasts. Retrieved March 10, 2018, from: https://thrive.kaiserpermanente.org/care-near-you/northern-california/gsaa/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2015/11/Breastfeeding-Your-Baby-How-to-Care-For-Leaking-Breasts_tcm28-199868.pdf


Lactational Mastitis

Amir, L. (2014). Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9(5), 239-243. 

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011). The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 11:54. 

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.


Plugged Milk Duct

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. (2011.) Positive effect of HPA lanolin versus expressed breast milk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011.) The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 11, 54. 

Amir, L.H. & The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee, (2014). ABM Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9 (5), 239-243.

Berens, P., Brodribb, W. & the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2016). ABM Clinical Protocol #20: Engorgement, Revised 2016. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11 (4), 159-163.

Bolman, M., Saju, L., Oganesyan, K., Kondrashova, T., & Witt, A. (2013). Recapturing the art of therapeutic breast massage during breastfeeding. Journal of Human Lactation, 29(3), 328-331.

Bouchet-Horwitz, J. (2011). The use of supple cups for flat, retracting, and inverted nipples. Clinical Lactation, 2-3, 30-33.

Chen, C., Hsu, M., Shen, C., Wang, C., Chang, S., Wu, K., Chen, S. (2011). Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates. Pediatrics & Neonatology, 52, 85-92.

Contreras, G., & Rodríguez, J. (2011). Mastitis: Comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 16, 339-356.

Duncan, D. (2015). Candida and breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery, 23(2), 98-100.

La Leche League. How can I increase my milk supply? (2011.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/increase.html 

La Leche League. How to prevent sore nipples. (2016.) Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/sore.html 

La Leche League. (2016.) My breasts feel extremely full and uncomfortable. What is happening and what can I do about it? Retrieved Dec. 6, 2017, from http://www.llli.org/faq/engorgement.html

Mannel, R., & Dixon, I. (2015). Breastfeeding was going well and now my nipples hurt: Could my baby or I have a yeast infection? Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association, 31(2), 319-320.

Seagraves, K., Brulte, A., McNeely, K. and Pritham, U. (2013). Supporting breastfeeding to reduce newborn readmissions for hyperbilirubinemia. Nursing for Women's Health, 17: 498-507.

Soldi, A., Tonetto, P., Varalda, A., & Bertino, E. (2011). Neonatal jaundice and human milk. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 24, 85-87. 

Walker, M. (2013) Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3). 106-115.

Witt, A., Bolman, M., Kredit, S., & Vanic, A. (2016). Therapeutic breast massage in lactation for the management of engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis. Journal of Human Lactation, 32(1), 123-131.


Sore Nipples

Abou-Dakn, M., Fluhr, J., Mo, G., & Woeckel, A. (2011). Positive Effect of HPA Lanolin versus Expressed Breast milk on Painful and Damaged Nipples during Lactation. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 24, 27-35.

Amir L.H., Cullinane M., Garland S.M., et al. (2011). The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 11:54. 

Berens, P., Eglash, A., Malloy, M., Steube, A. M. (2016). Academy of Breastfeeding medicine clinical protocol #26: Persistent pain with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine, 11(2), 1-8. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.29002.pjb 

Walker, M. (2013). Are there any cures for sore nipples? Clinical Lactation, 4(3) 106-115.

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