Women's Health Disorders


Abnormal Pap Test

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). FAQ187: Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Abnormal-Cervical-Cancer-Screening-Test-Results

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for Average-Risk Women. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/pdf/guidelines.pdf 

Chelimo, C., Wouldes, T. A., Cameron, L. D., & Elwood, J. M. (2013). Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer. Journal of Infectious Disease 66(3), 207-217. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.10.024

Massad, L. S., Einstein, M. H., Huh, W. K., Katki, H. A., Kinney, W. K., Schiffman, M., Conference, A. C. G. (2013). 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 121(4), 829-846. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182883a34

Saslow, D., Solomon, D., Lawson, H. W., Killackey, M., Kulasingam, S. L., Cain, J. M., Waldman, J. (2012). American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(3), 175-204. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e31824ca9d5

Solomon, D., Davey, D., Kurman, R., Moriarty, A., O'Connor, D., Prey, M., Bethesda, W. (2002). The 2001 Bethesda System: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology. JAMA, 287(16), 2114-2119.


Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2013). Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. National Guideline Clearinghouse. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=46416 

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Management of Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Nonpregnant Reproductive-Aged Women. Committee Opinion No. 557. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/Management-of-Acute-Abnormal-Uterine-Bleeding-in-Nonpregnant-Reproductive-Aged-Women

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women. Practice Bulletin No. 128. Obstetrics and Gynecology 120:197-206. 

Dueholm, M. (2006). Transvaginal ultrasound for diagnosis of adenomyosis: A review. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 20(4), 569–582.

Edwards, R. D., Moss, J. G., Lumsden, M. A., et al. (2007). Committee of the Randomized Trial of Embolization versus Surgical Treatment for Fibroids. Uterine-artery embolization versus surgery for symptomatic uterine fibroids. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(4), 360–370

Farquhar, C. M., Sadler, L., Harvey, S. A., & Stewart, A. W. (2005). The association of hysterectomy and menopause: A prospective cohort study. British Journal of Gynaecology, 112(7), 956–962.

Fraser, I. S., Critchley, H. O., & Munro, M. G. (2007). Abnormal uterine bleeding: Getting our terminology straight Current Opinion Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19(6), 591–595.

Kouides, P. A., Conard, J., Peyvandi, F., Lukes, A., & Kadir, R. (2005). Hemostasis and menstruation: Appropriate investigation for underlying disorders of hemostasis in women with excessive menstrual bleeding. Fertilization and Sterilization, 84, 1345–51.

Munro, M. G., Critchley, H. O., Broder, M. S., & Fraser, I. S. (2011). FIGO classification system (PALM-COEIN) for causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in nongravid women of reproductive age. FIGO Working Group on Menstrual Disorders. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 113, 3–13.

Munro, M. G., Mainor, N., Basu, R., Brisinger, M., & Barreda, L. (2006). Oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and combination oral contraceptives for acute uterine bleeding: A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology,108, 924–9.

National Center for Biological Information. (2015). U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drugs A-Z. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0009804/?report=details#side_effects 

Rezk, M., Masood, A., & Dawood, R. Perimenopausal bleeding: Patterns, pathology, response to progestins and clinical outcome. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1-5. doi:10.3109/01443615.2014.977781

Sweet, M. G., Schmidt-Dalton, T. A., Weiss, P. M., & Madsen, K. P. (2012). Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. American Family Physician, 85(1), 35-43. 

van Dongen, H., de Kroon, C. D., Jacobi, C. E., Trimbos, J. B., & Jansen, F. W. (2007). Diagnostic hysteroscopy in abnormal uterine bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Gynaecology,114, 664–75. 


Amenorrhea

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Amenorrhea. (2014). Primary Ovarian Insufficiency in Adolescents and Young Women. Committee Opinion No. 605. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Adolescent-Health-Care/co605.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20180323T1621172336

American Society of Reproductive Medicine, & Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2008). Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertility and sterility, 90(5), S219-S225. Doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.038

d'Alva, C. B., Abiven-Lepage, G., & Viallon, V., et al. (2008). Sex steroids in androgen-secreting adrenocortical tumors: clinical and hormonal features in comparison with nontumoral causes of androgen excess. European Journal of Endocrinology, 159(5), 641–647.

Gordon, C. M. (2010). Clinical practice. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(4), 365–371.

Klein, D. A., & Poth, M. A. (2013). Amenorrhea: an approach to diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 87(11), 781-788. 

Master-Hunter, T., & Heiman, D. L. (2006). Amenorrhea: evaluation and treatment. American Family Physician, 73(8), 1374–1382.

National Institute of Health. (2014). About Amenorrhea. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/amenorrhea/conditioninfo/Pages/default.aspx 

Nelson, L. M. (2009). Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(6), 606–614.

Popat, V. B., Prodanov, T., Calis, K. A., & Nelson, L. M. (2008). The Menstrual Cycle A Biological Marker of General Health in Adolescents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1135, 43-51. doi:10.1196/annals.1429.040

Speroff, L., & Fritz, M.A. Amenorrhea. In: Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005;401–64.

Sybert, V. P., & McCauley, E. (2004). Turner's syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(12), 1227–1238.


Bartholin’s Gland Cyst/Abscess

Chen, K, T. (2017). Bartholin gland masses: Diagnosis and management. Barbieri, R.L., Goff, B., Falks, S.J., eds. UpToDate. Retrieved Nov. 13, 2017, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/bartholin-gland-masses-diagnosis-and-management

McNeeley, S.G. (2014) Merck Manual. Bartholin gland cysts. Retrieved Nov. 13, 2017, from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/benign-gynecologic-lesions/bartholin-gland-cysts

White, C. D. Barthollin cyst or abcess. MedlinePlus. Retrieved Nov. 13, 2017, from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001489.htm


Benign Ovarian Tumors

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). FAQ075: Ovarian Cysts. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Ovarian-Cysts

Apostol, R., Sirota, I., Mrkaic, A., & Nezhat, F. R. (2015). Benign ovarian tumors and endometriosis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 125 Suppl 1, 39S-40S. Doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000463048.91978.1f.

Brun, J., Fritel, X., Aubard, Y., Borghese, B., Bourdel, N., Chabbert-Buffet, N., Collège National des Gynécologues Obstétriciens Français. (2014). Management of presumed benign ovarian tumors: Updated French guidelines. European Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 183, 52-58. Doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.10.012.

Goldberg, MD, A. (2015). Benign Lesions of the Ovaries. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/265548-overview#aw2aab6b4 

Lahlou, N., & Brun, J. (2013). Ovarian tumor markers of presumed benign ovarian tumors. Journal De Gynécologie, Obstétrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction, 42(8), 752.

McNeeley, S. (2014). Benign Ovarian Masses. Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/benign-gynecologic-lesions/benign-ovarian-masses 
Mimoun, C., Fritel, X., Fauconnier, A., Deffieux, X., Dumont, A., & Huchon, C. (2013). Epidemiology of presumed benign ovarian tumors. Journal De Gynecologie Obstetrique Et Biologie De La Reproduction, 42(8), 722-729. Doi: 10.1016/j.jgyn.2013.09.027.

Muto, M.G. (2016). Approach to the patient with adnexal mass. UpToDate. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-patient-with-an-adnexal-mass 


Breast Cancer

Amercian Cancer Society. (2016). Breast Cancer. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003090-pdf.pdf 

American Cancer Society. (2016). Breast cancer early detection and diagnosis. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/breastcancerearlydetection/breast-cancer-early-detection-acs-recs 

American Cancer Society. (2017). Cancer facts & figures 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/all-cancer-facts-figures/cancer-facts-figures-2017.html 

American Cancer Society. (2016). Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans 2016-2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@editorial/documents/document/acspc-047403.pdf 

American College of Obstertricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Practice Bulletin Number 179: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening in Average-Risk Women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 130(1), e1-e16. doi:10.1097/aog.0000000000002158

Ban, K. A., & Godellas, C. V. (2014). Epidemiology of Breast Cancer. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, 23(3), 409-409. doi:10.1016/j.soc.2014.03.011

Committee of Practice Bulletins-Gynecology. Practice bulletin number 179: Breast cancer risk assessment and screening in average-risk women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2017;130(1):e1-e16.

Davies, Eleri Lloyd. (2012). Breast cancer. Medicine 40(1), 5-9. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2011.09.010

Euhus, D. M., & Diaz, J. (2015). Breast Cancer Prevention. The Breast Journal, 21(1), 76-81. doi:10.1111/tbj.12352

Fuller, Mackenzie S., Lee, Christoph I., & Elmore, Joann G. (2015). Breast Cancer Screening. Medical Clinics of North America. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.002

Gemignani, Mary L. Breast cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 132(2), 264-267. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.01.022

Lester, Joanne. (2015). Local treatment of breast cancer. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 31(2), 122. 

Machida, Youichi, Tozaki, Mitsuhiro, Shimauchi, Akiko, & Yoshida, Tamiko. (2015). Breast density: The trend in breast cancer screening. Breast Cancer, 22(3), 253-261. doi:10.1007/s12282-015-0602-2

National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2013). Breast cancer follow-up and management after primary treatment: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=38701&search=breast+cancer+and+follow+up

Powers, Jacquelyn, & Stopfer, Jill Elise. (2014). Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Clinical Care for Hereditary Breast Cancer. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 43(3), 361-373. doi:10.1111/1552-6909.12304

Rich, Thereasa A., Woodson, Ashley H., Litton, Jennifer, & Arun, Banu. (2015). Hereditary breast cancer syndromes and genetic testing. Journal of Surgical Oncololgy, 111(1), 66-80. doi:10.1002/jso.23791

Runowicz, C. D., Leach, C. R., Henry, N. et al. (2016). American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34(6), 611-635. doi:doi:10.1200/JCO.2015.64.3809

Salzman, B., Fleegle, S., & Tully, A. S. (2012). Common Breast Problems. American Family Physician, 86(4), 343-349. 

Stan, D., Loprinzi, Charles L., & Ruddy, K. J. (2013). Breast cancer survivorship issues. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 27(4), 805. 

Tao, ZiQi, Shi, Aimin, Lu, Cuntao, Song, Tao, Zhang, Zhengguo, & Zhao, Jing. (2015). Breast cancer: Epidemiology and etiology. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 72(2), 333-338. doi:10.1007/s12013-014-0459-6

Tirona, M. T. (2013). Breast Cancer Screening Update. American Family Physician, 87(4), 274-278. 

Zurrida, S., & Veronesi, U. (2015). Milestones in breast cancer treatment. The Breast Journal, 21(1), 3-12. doi:10.1111/tbj.12361


Breast Disorders

Fibroadenoma

Amin, A. L., Purdy, A. C., Mattingly, J. D., & Kong, A. L. (2013). Benign breast disease. Surgical Clinics of North America, 93(2), 299-308. 

Bateman, A. C., & Shaw, E. C. (2013). Breast pathology. Surgery (Oxford), 31(1), 4-10. 

Cerrato, F., & Labow, B. I. (2013,). Diagnosis and management of fibroadenomas in the adolescent breast. Seminars in Plastic Surgery, 27(1), 23-25. 

Dyrstad, S. W., Yan, Y., Fowler, A. M., & Colditz, G. A. (2015). Breast cancer risk associated with benign breast disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 149(3), 569-575. doi:10.1007/s10549-014-3254-6 

Frazier, A. L., & Rosenberg, S. M. (2013). Preadolescent and adolescent risk factors for benign breast disease. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 536-540.

Lakoma, A., & Kim, E. S. (2014). Minimally invasive surgical management of benign breast lesions. Gland Surgery, 3(2), 142-148. 

Lehman, Constance D., Amie Y. Lee, and Christoph I. Lee. Imaging management of palpable breast abnormalities. American Journal of Roentgenology 203.5 (2014): 1142-1153.

Nassar, A., Visscher, D. W., Degnim, A. C., et al. (2015). Complex fibroadenoma and breast cancer risk: a Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort Study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 153(2), 397-405. doi:10.1007/s10549-015-3535-8

Onstad, M., & Stuckey, A. (2013). Benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 40, 459-473. 

Pruthi, S., & Jones, K. N. (2013). Nonsurgical management of fibroadenoma and virginal breast hypertrophy. Seminars in Plastic Surgery, 27(1), 62-66.

Santen RJ. (2017). Benign Breast Disease in Women. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, et al., eds. Endotext. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278994/ 


Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Aksoy, H. T., Eras, Z., Erdeve, O., & Dilmen, U. (2013). A rare cause of hematemesis in newborn: Fibrocystic breast disease of mother. Breastfeeding Medicine, 8(4), 418-420. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2013.0031. 

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG]. (2017). Practice Bulletin: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening in Average- Risk Women. Number 179. Obstet Gynecol. 130(1):e1-e16.

Amin, A. L., Purdy, A. C., Mattingly, J. D., & Kong, A. L. (2013). Benign breast disease. Surgical Clinics of North America, 93(2), 299-308. 

Bateman, A. C., & Shaw, E. C. (2013). Breast pathology. Surgery, 31(1), 4-10. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2012.10.012 

Berkey, C. S., Tamimi, R. M., Rosner, B., Frazier, L., & Colditz, G. A. (2012). Young women with family history of breast cancer and their risk for benign breast disease. Cancer, 2796-2803. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26519 

Datta, S., & Davies, E. L. (2013). Benign breast disease. Surgery, 31(1), 22-26. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2012.10.016 

Foulkes, R., & Gateley, C. A. (2010). Management of benign diseases of the breast. Surgery, 28(3), 125-129. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2009.11.007 

Frazier, A. L., & Rosenberg, S. M. (2013). Preadolescent and adolescent risk factors for benign breast disease. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 536-540. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.007 

Golshan, M. (2016). Breast pain. A.B. Changpar (Ed.) UpToDate. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/breast-pain

Liu, Y., Tamimi, R. M., Berkey, C. S., Willett, W. C., Collins, L. C., Schnitt, S. J., Colditz, G. A. (2012). Intakes of alcohol and folate during adolescence and risks of proliferative benign breast disease. Pediatrics, 129(5), e1192-e1198. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2601 

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2016). Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from http://www.jnccn.org/content/7/10/1060.full 

Neal, L., Sandhu, N. P., Hieken, T. J., Glazebrook, K. N., Mac Bride, M. B., et al. (2014). Diagnosis and management of benign, atypical, and indeterminate breast lesions detected on core needle biopsy. Mayo Clin Proc, 89(4), 536-547. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.02.004

Onstad, M., & Stuckey, A. (2013). Benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 40, 459-473. 
Rodrigues, G., & Seetharam, P. (2015). Benign breast disorders: An insight with a detailed literature review. Breast, 6(1), WMC004806. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.9754/journal.wmc.2015.004806 

Visscher, D. W., Frost, M. H., Hartmann, L. C., Frank, R. D., Vierkant, R. A., et al. (2016). Clinicopathologic Features of Breast Cancers that Develop in Women with Previous Benign Breast Disease. Cancer, 122(3), 378-385. doi:10.1002/cncr.29766 

Warren, R., & Degnim, A. C. (2013). Uncommon benign breast abnormalities in adolescents. Seminars in Plastic Surgery, 27(1), 26-28. Retrieved Jan. 17, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1343993


Intraductal Papilloma

Amin, A. L., Purdy, A. C., Mattingly, J. D., & Kong, A. L. (2013). Benign breast disease. Surgical Clinics of North America, 93(2), 299-308. 

Bateman, A. C., & Shaw, E. C. (2013). Breast pathology. Surgery, 31(1), 4-10. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2012.10.012 

Berkey, C. S., Tamimi, R. M., Rosner, B., Frazier, L., & Colditz, G. A. (2012). Young women with family history of breast cancer and their risk for benign breast disease. Cancer, 2796-2803. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26519 

Bloom, C. (2015). Breast Papillomas A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 31(5), 282-289.

Datta, S., & Davies, E. L. (2013). Benign breast disease. Surgery (Oxford), 31(1), 22-26. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2012.10.016  

Frazier, A. L., & Rosenberg, S. M. (2013). Preadolescent and adolescent risk factors for benign breast disease. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 536-540. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.007 

Jagmohan P, Pool FJ, Putti TC, Wong J. (2013). Papillary lesions of the breast: imaging findings and diagnostic challenges. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Ankara, Turkey). 19(6):471-478.

Liu, Y., Tamimi, R. M., Berkey, C. S., Willett, W. C., Collins, L. C., Schnitt, S. J., Colditz, G. A. (2012). Intakes of alcohol and folate during adolescence and risks of proliferative benign breast disease. Pediatrics, 129(5), e1192-e1198. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2601 

Onstad, M., & Stuckey, A. (2013). Benign breast disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 40, 459-473. 

Wang W, Ding J, Yang W, et al. (2015). MRI characteristics of intraductal papilloma. Acta Radiologica. 56(3), 276-283.

Weisman PS, Sutton BJ, Siziopikou KP, et al. (2014). Non–mass-associated intraductal papillomas: is excision necessary? Human Pathology. 45(3), 583-588.

Yi, W., Xu, F., Zou, Q., & Tang, Z. (2013). Completely removing solitary intraductal papillomas using the Mammotome system guided by ultrasonography is feasible and safe. World Journal of Surgery, 37(11), 2613-2617. Retrieved Jan. 18, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-013-2178-3  


Cervical Cancer

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Gynecological problems; cervical cancer. Frequently asked questions (FAQ163). Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://www.acog.org/-/media/For-Patients/faq163.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20150601T1710048783

Beckmann, C. R., Ling, F. W., Herbert, W., Laube, D. W., Smith, R. P. Casanova, R., Weiss, P. M. (2014). Obstetrics and Gynecology (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Boardman, C. H., & Matthews, K. J. (2014). Cervical Cancer. Medscape Medicine. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253513-overview

Crosbie, E. J., Einstein, M. H., Franceschi, S., & Kitchener, H. C. (2013). Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. The Lancet, 382(9895), 889-899. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60022-7

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Cervical cancer rates by race and ethnicity. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/statistics/race.htm 

FIGO Committee on Gynecology Oncology. (2009). A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia. FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix and endometrium. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 105, 103-104. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://screening.iarc.fr/viaviliappendix1.php

Goldman, L., & Schafer, A. I. (2012). Goldman-Cecil Medicine, (25th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Hoover, H. M., Pfeiffer, A. E., Bond, B., Cheville, A., Colton, T., Hartge, P., Troisi, R. (2011). Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstibestrol. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2011/nci-05.htm

Massad LS, et al. (2013). 2012 Updated Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Tests and Cancer Precursors. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease. 17(5): S1-S27.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2016). Clinical practice guidelines in oncology: cervical cancer (Version 1.2016). Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from https://www.tri-kobe.org/nccn/guideline/gynecological/english/cervical.pdf

Ribeiro, F., Correia, L., Paula, T., Santana, I., Pinto, L.V., Borrego, J., Jorge, A.F. (2013). Cervical cancer in pregnancy. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 17(1), 66-70. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/778003_1

Schuling, K. D., Likis, F. E. (2013). Women’s Gynecological Health (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Cervical Cancer: Inside Knowledge (CDC Publication No. 99-9123). Retrieved Dec. 4, 2017, from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/pdf/cervical_facts.pdf 


Contraception

Angelini, K. (2016). A lower-cost option for intrauterine contraception. Nursing for Women’s Health, 20(2), 197-202.

Bartz, D., & Goldberg, A. B. (2011). Injectable contraceptives. In R. A. Hatcher (Ed.), Contraceptive Technology (20th ed.). Alpharetta, GA: Bridging the Gap Communications, Inc. 

Brache, V., Payan, L. J., & Faundes, A. (2013). Current status of contraceptive vaginal rings. Contraception, 87, 264-272. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Recommendations and Reports. 65(3), 1-104.

Chrousos, G. P. (2014). Chapter 40: The gonadal hormones & inhibitors. In B. G. Katzung & A. J. Trevor (Eds.), Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (13 ed.). 

Dean, G., & Schwarz, E. B. (2011). Intrauterine contraceptives. In R. A. Hatcher (Ed.), Contraceptive Technology (20 ed.). 

Fantasia, H. C. (2008). Options for intrauterine contraception. JOGNN, 37(3), 375-383. 

Frye, C. A. (2006). An overview of oral contraceptives: Mechanism of action and clinical use. Neurology, 66(4), S29-S36. 

Hang-Wun, R. L., Tsing, S. S., & Ho, P. C. (2014). Emergency contraception. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 28, 835-844. 

Hatcher, R. A. (2011). Contraceptive Efficacy: Table 3-2. Contraceptive Technology. Retrieved Dec. 5, 2017, from http://www.contraceptivetechnology.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/CTFailureTable.pdf. 

Jacobstein, R., & Polis, C. B. (2014). Progestin-only contraception: Injectables and implants. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 28(6), 795-806. 

Li, H. W., Lo, S. S., & Ho, P. C. (2014). Emergency Contraception. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 28, 835-844. 

O'Connell, K. E., & Burkman, R. T. (2007). The transdermal contraceptive patch: An updated review of the literature. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 50(4), 918-926.

Pushpa, B., Sangita, N., Shivani, A., & Chitra, T. (2011). Implanon: Subdermal single rod contraceptive implant. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India, 61(4), 422-425. 

Raymond, E. G. (2011). Contraceptive implants. In R. A. Hatcher (Ed.), Contraceptive Technology (20 ed.). Alpharetta, GA: Bridging the Gap Communications, Inc. 

Schindler, A. E. (2013). Non-contraceptive benefits of oral hormonal contraceptives. International Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 11(1), 41-47. 

Sitruk-Ware, R., & Nath, A. (2010). The use of newer progestins for contraception. Contraception, 82, 410-417. 

World Health Organization. (2015). Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (5th ed.). 

World Health Organization. (2011). Family Planning: A Global Update for Providers 2011 Update. Retrieved Dec. 5, 2017, at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44028/1/9780978856373_eng.pdf

Wysocki, S. (2006). Effective counseling - at the heart of patient care. Clinical Issues in Women's Health. 

Yranski, P. A., & Gamache, M. E. (2008). New options for barrier contraception. JOGNN, 37, 384-389.


Dysmenorrhea

Calis, K.A. (2017). Dysmenorrhea. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253812-overview

Ju, H., Jones, M., & Mishra, G. (2013). The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiologic Reviews, 36 (1): 104-113. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://academic.oup.com/epirev/article/36/1/104/566554

Osayande, A. S., & Mehulic, S. (2014). Diagnosis and initial management of dysmenorrhea. American Family Physician, 89(5), 341-346. 

Potur, D. C., & Kömürcü, N. (2014). The Effects of Local Low-Dose Heat Application on Dysmenorrhea. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 27(4), 216-221. 

Schuiling, K. D., & Likis, F. E. (2011). Women's Gynecologic Health: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Smith, R. P. (2015). Managing dysmenorrhea. Contemporary Ob/Gyn, 60(4). Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://contemporaryobgyn.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-obgyn/news/managing-dysmenorrhea?page=full


Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause


American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2016). Management of menopausal symptoms. Practice Bulletin No. 141. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 123(1):202-216. 

American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists. (2016). The use of vaginal estrogen in women with a history of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Committee Opinion No. 659. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/The-Use-of-Vaginal-Estrogen-in-Women-With-a-History-of-Estrogen-Dependent-Breast-Cancer

Gandhi, J., Chen, A. Dagus, G., Yiji, S., Smith, N., Cali, B., & Khan, S.A. (2016). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: an overview 
of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 215 (6), 704-711.

Portman, D. J., & Gass, M. L. (2014). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society. The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 21(10), 1063-1068. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/gsm-paper.pdf 

Steele, N. M., Ledbetter, C. A., & Bernier, F. (2016). Genitourinary syndrome of menopause and vaginal estrogen use. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/863764 

The North American Menopause Society. (2013). Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 20(9), 888-902. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2013/vva-position-statement.pdf 

The North American Menopause Society. (2017). The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause 
Society. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 24(7), 728-753. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2017/nams-2017-hormone-therapy-position-statement.pdf 


Menopause

Buttaro, T.M., Trybulski, J. Bailey, P.P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary Care: A collaborative practice. (4th Ed.). St Louis: Mosby

Cobin, R.H., Goodman, N.F. (2017). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Position Statement on Menopause–2017 Update. Endocrine Practice. 23 (7): 869-880.

De Medeiros, S. F., Yamamoto, M. M. W., & Barbosa, J. S. (2013). Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management. Clinical Medicine Insights. Women’s Health, 6, 13-24. http://doi.org/10.4137/CMWH.S10483

Hill, D. A., Crider, M., & Hill, S. R. (2016). Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of Menopause. American Family Physician, 94(11), 884. 

Holloway, D. (2008). Non-hormonal treatment options during the menopause. Nurse Prescribing, 6(11), 479-484. 

Makara-Studzińśka, M. T., Kryś-Noszczyk, K. M., & Jakiel, G. (2014). Epidemiology of the symptoms of menopause – an intercontinental review. Przegla̜d Menopauzalny = Menopause Review, 13(3), 203-211. http://doi.org/10.5114/pm.2014.43827

North American Menopause Society. (2017). Health Professionals page. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.menopause.org/for-professionals

Steunkel, S.A., Davis, S.R., Gompel, A., et al. (2015). Treatment of Symptoms of the Menopause: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100 (11): 3975-4011. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/100/11/3975/2836060

United States Preventive Services Task force. (2017). Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Women: Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/menopausal-hormone-therapy-preventive-medication1?ds=1&s=menopause


Normal Menstrual Cycle

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Menstruation in girls and adolescents: using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Committee Opinion 651. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Adolescent-Health-Care/Menstruation-in-Girls-and-Adolescents-Using-the-Menstrual-Cycle-as-a-Vital-Sign

He, Q., & Karlberg, J. (2001). BMI in childhood and its association with height gain, timing of puberty and final height. Pediatric Research, 49, 244-251.

Wang, Y. (2002). Is obesity associated with early sexual maturation? A comparison of the association in American boys versus girls. Pediatrics, 110, 903-910. 


Ovarian Cancer

American Cancer Society. (2017). Survival rates for ovarian cancer by stage. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/survival-rates.html 

American Cancer Society. (2017). What are the key statistics about ovarian cancer? Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer/about/key-statistics.html 

American Cancer Society. (2015). What is ovarian cancer? Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovariancancer/detailedguide /ovarian-cancer-what-is-ovarian-cancer 

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). FAQ 096: Ovarian cancer. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.acog.org/-/media/For-Patients/faq096.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20150522T1453051969

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ACOG Committee on Genetics, ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins, Gynecology, & Society of Gynecologic Oncologists. (2009). ACOG practice bulletin no. 103: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 113(4), 957-966. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a106d4

Doubeni, C., Doubeni, A., & Myers, A. (2016). Diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer. American Family Physician, 93(11), 937-944. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p937.html 

Erickson, B., Conner, M., & Landen, C. (2013). The role of fallopian tube in the origin of ovarian cancer. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(5), 409-414. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2013.04.019

Esherick, J.S., Clark, D.S., & Slater, E.D. (2016). Current Practice Guidelines in Primary Care. New York, NY; McGraw Hill.

Howlader, N., Noone, A., Krapcho, M, Garshell, J., Miller, D., Altekruse, S., Kosary, C. (2014). Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program cancer statistics review, 1975-2013. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/sections.html

National Cancer Institute. (2016). SEER stat fact sheets: Ovarian cancer. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html

National Cancer Institute. (2016). BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/genetics/brca-fact-sheet#q2 

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Ovarian epithelial, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatment (PDQ)-health professional version. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cancer.gov/types/ovarian/hp/ovarian-epithelial-treatment-pdq#link/_416_toc 

Roett, M., & Evans, P. (2009). Ovarian cancer: An overview. American Family Physician, 80(6) 609-616. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p609.html 

Salani, R., Backes, F., Fung, M., Holschneider, M., Parker, L., Bristow, R., & Goff, B. (2011). Posttreatment surveillance and diagnosis of recurrence in women with gynecologic malignancies: Society of gynecologic oncologist’s recommendations. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 204(6), 466-478. 

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2012). Screening for ovarian cancer: U.S. preventive services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157(12), 900-904. Doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-11-201212040-00539


Pap Test Screening Guidelines

Agorastos, T., Chatzistamatiou, K., Katsamagkas, T., Koliopoulos, G., Daponte, A., Constantinidis, T., Null, N. (2015). Primary screening for cervical cancer based on high-risk human papilloma (HPV) detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping in comparison to cytology. PLOS One, 10(3), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119755

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). ACOG Practice Bulletin No: 131: Screening for cervical cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 120(5):1222-38. doi: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e318277c92a.

Evidence Regarding Human Papillomavirus Testing in Secondary Prevention of Cervical Cancer. (2012). Vaccine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.095

Huh, W. K., Ault, K. A., Chelmow, D., Davey, D. D., Goulart, R. A., Garcia, F., Einstein, M. H. (2015). Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: Interim clinical guidance. Gynecologic Oncology, 136(2), 178-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.12.022

Paavonen, J., Naud, P., Salmeron, J., Wheeler, C., Chow, S., Apter, D., Greenacre, M. (2009). Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 AS04-adjunct vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): Final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet, 374 (9686), 301-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736 (09)61248-4

Saslow, D., Solomon, D., Lawson, H. W., Killackey, M., Kulasingam, S. L., Cain, J. M., Waldman, J. (2012). American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(3), 175-204. Doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e31824ca9d5

Schiffman, M., Wentzensen, N., Wacholder, S., Kinney, W., Gage, J., & Castle, P. (2011). Human papillomavirus testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 103, 368-383.

United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2012). Screening for cervical cancer. Retrieved from http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf11/cervcancer/cervcancerrs.htm 

Wright, T. C., Stoler, M. H., Behrens, C. M., Sharma, A., Zhang, G., & Wright, T. L. (2015). Primary cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus: End of study results from the ATHENA study using HPV as the first-line screening test. Gynecologic Oncology, 136(2), 189-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.11.076


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2009). ACOG practice bulletin number 108: Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists Number 108, October 2009: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 114(4), 936-948.

Ayyagari, M., Chitela, S. R., & Kolachana, V. (2012). Obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome and thyroid dysfunction in women with epilepsy. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 15(2), 101-105.

Conway, G., Dewailly, D., Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., Escobar-Morreale, H. F., Franks, S., Gamineri, A., Yildiz, B. O. (2014). The polycystic ovarian syndrome: A position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology. European Journal of Endocrinology 171(4), 1-29. Doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-0253
Domino, F., Baldor, R., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. (2017). The 5-Minute Clinical Consult 2018 (26th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fauser, B. C., Tarlatzis, B. C., Rebar, R. W., Legro, R. S., Balen, A. H., Lobo, R., & Barnhart, K. (2012). Consensus on women’s health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertility and Sterility, 97(1), 28-38.

Goodman, N. F., Cobin, R. H., Futterweit, W., Glueck, J. S., Legro, R. S., & Carmina, E. (2015). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Androgen Excess and PCOS society disease state clinical review: guide to the best practices in the evaluation and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome-part 1. Endocrine Practice, 21(11), 1291-1300.

Goodman, N. F., Cobin, R. H., Futterweit, W., Glueck, J. S., Legro, R. S., & Carmina, E. (2015). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Androgen Excess and PCOS society disease state clinical review: guide to the best practices in the evaluation and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome-part 2. Endocrine Practice, 21(11), 1291-1300.

Legro, R. S., Arslanian, S. A., Ehrmann, D. A., Hoeger, K. M., Murad, M. H., & Pasquali, R. (2013). Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(12), 4565-4592. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-2350

Sirmans, S. M., & Pate, K. A. (2014). Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical Epidemiology, 6, 1-13.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (2012). Evidence Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Retrieved Jan. 8, 2018, from: https://prevention.nih.gov/docs/programs/pcos/FinalReport.pdf


Vaginal Foreign Body

Closson, F. T., & Lichenstein, R. (2013). Vaginal foreign bodies and child sexual abuse: an important consideration. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 14(5), 437.

D’Elia, C., Curti, P., Cerruto, M.A., Monaco, C., Artibani, W. (2015). Large Urethro-Vesico-Vaginal Fistula due to a Vaginal Foreign Body in a 22-Year-Old Woman. Urol Int, 95(1):120-124. doi: 10.1159/000365421. 

Griffin, K., Brent, R., Vollenhoven, B., & Swanson, A. (2015). Vaginal burn from alkaline battery in an 8-year old. North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 28, 99-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2014.08.010

Nayak, S., Feldman, S., & Sanfilippo, J.S. (2014). Vaginal foreign body: a delayed diagnosis. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 27(6); 127-129.

Shiryazdi, S.M., Heiranizadeh, N., Soltani, H.R. (2013). Rectorrhagia and vaginal discharge caused by a vaginal foreign body—a case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 26(3):e73-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2013.01.001.

Yıldız, S., Ekin, M., Cengiz, H., Dağdeviren, H., Kaya, C.J. (2013). Vaginal foreign body: Successful management with vaginoscopy. Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc, 14(1):46-7. doi: 10.5152/jtgga.2013.10.


Vulvar Disorders

Vulvar Cancer

American Cancer Society. (2017). Key statistics for vulvar cancer. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/vulvar-cancer/about/key-statistics.html 

Blair, A. R., & Casas, C. M. (2009). Gynecologic cancers. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 36(1), 115-130.

Hacker, N., Eifel, P., & van der Velden, J. (2015). Cancer of the vulva. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 131, S76-S83. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.002

Howlader, N., Noon, A.M., Krapcho, M., et al. (Eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2014, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2014/ 

National Cancer Institute. (2017). Vulvar Cancer Treatment—Health Professional Version. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cancer.gov/types/vulvar/hp/vulvar-treatment-pdq 

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. (2014). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of vulval carcinoma. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/vulvalcancerguideline.pdf 

Woelber, L., Kock, L., Gieseking, F., Petersen, C., Trillsch, F., Choschzick, M., & Mahner, S. (2011). Clinical management of primary vulvar cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 47(15), 2315-2321.
Zweizig, S., Korets, S., & Cain, J. M. (2014). Key concepts in management of vulvar cancer. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28(7), 959-966.

Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Committee Opinion No. 675. Management of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/Management-of-Vulvar-Intraepithelial-Neoplasia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2008). ACOG practice bulletin no. 93: Diagnosis and management of vulvar skin disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(5), 1243-1254. 

Bodelon, C., Madeleine, M. M., Voigt, L. F., & Weiss, N. S. (2009). Is the incidence of invasive vulvar cancer increasing in the United States? Cancer Causes & Control, 20(9), 1779-1782.

Bornstein, J., Bogliatto, F., Haefner, H. K., Stockdale, C. K., Preti, M., Reuter, J. (2016). The 2015 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) terminology of vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 20(1), 264-268. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001285

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014l). Human Papillomavirus. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt05-hpv.html 

Committee on Gynecologic Practice of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. (2012). Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(1), 1-3. doi:10.1097/LGT.0b013e31823abb27

Darragh, T. M., Colgan, T. J., Cox, J. T., Heller, D. S., Henry, M. R., & Luff, R. D. (2012). The lower anogenital squamous terminology standardization project for HPV-associated lesions: background and consensus recommendations from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 16(3), 205-242.

Moscicki, A. B., & Cox, J. T. (2010). Practice improvement in cervical screening and management (PICSM): symposium on management of cervical abnormalities in adolescents and young women. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 14(1), 73.

Management of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. (2016). Obstetrics and Gynecology, 128(4), e178-e182. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001713

Preti, M., Scurry, J., Marchitelli, C. E., & Micheletti, L. (2014). Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28(7), 1051-1062.

Saraiya, M., Watson, M., Wu, X., King, J. B., Chen, V. W., Smith, J. S., & Giuliano, A. R. (2008). Incidence of in situ and invasive vulvar cancer in the US, 1998–2003. Cancer, 113(S10), 2865-2872.

van Seters, M., van Beurden, M., ten Kate, F. J., Beckmann, I., Ewing, P. C., Eijkemans, M. J., & Helmerhorst, T. J. (2008). Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with topical imiquimod. New England Journal of Medicine, 358(14), 1465-1473.

Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus

Ayhan, A., Guven, S., Guvendag-Guvan, E.S., Sakinici, M., Gultekin, M., & Kucukali, T. (2007). Topical testosterone versus clobetasol for vulvar lichen sclerosus. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 96, 117-121. 
 
Fistarol, S. & Itin, P. (2013). Diagnosis and treatment of lichen sclerosus. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 14(1), 27-47

Funaro, D., Lovett, A., Leroux, N., & Powell, J. (2014). A double-blind, randomized perspective study evaluating topical clobetasol 0.05% versus topical tacrolimus 0.1% in patients with vulvar lichen sclerosis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 71(1) 84-91

Goldstein, A. & Burrows, M. (2007). Surgical treatment of clitoral phimosis caused by lichen sclerosus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2, 126e-126.e3

Goldstein, A. Creasy, A., Pfau, R., Phillips, D., & Burrows, L. (2011). A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of clobetasol versus pimecrolimus in patients with vulvar lichen sclerosus. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 64(6), e99-e104

Haefner, H., Aldrich, N., Dalton, V., Gagne, H., Marcus, S., Patel, D., & Berger, M. (2014). The impact of vulvar lichen sclerosus on sexual dysfunction. Journal of Women’s Health, 23(9), 765-770. 

Jones, R., Scurry, J., Neill, S., & MacLean, A. (2008). Guidelines for the follow-up of women with vulvar lichen sclerosus in specialist clinics. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5, 496e1-496e3

Lee, A., Bradford, J., & Fischer, G. (2015). Long-term management of adult vulvar lichen sclerosus. JAMA Dermatology, 151(10), 1061-1067. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0643

McPhereson, T. & Cooper, S. (2010). Vulvar lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. Dermatologic Therapy, 23, 523-532

Murphy, R. (2010). Lichen sclerosus. Dermatologic Clinics, 28(40), 707-715

Nair, P. (2017). Vulvar lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Journal of Midlife Health, 8(2), 55-62. 

Oskay, T., Sezer, HK., Gen, C., & Kutluay, L. (2007). Diagnosis and treatment of lichen sclerosus: An update. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology,46(5), 527-532

Perez-Lopez, F., Ceausu, I., Depypere, H., Tamer Erel, C., Lambrinoudaki, I., Rees, M., Simoncini, T. (2013). EMAS clinical guide: Vulvar lichen sclerosus in peri and postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 74, 279-28

Tausch, T. & Peterson. C. (2012). Early aggressive treatment of lichen sclerosus may prevent disease progression. The Journal of Urology, 187, 2101-2105. 

Terras, S., Gambichler, T., Moritz, RK., Stucker, M., & Kreuter, A. (2014). UV-A1 phototherapy vs clobetasol propionate 0.05%, in the treatment of lichen sclerosus: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatology 150(6), 621-627

Ueda, Y., Enomoto, T., Kimura, T., Yoshino, K., Fujita, M., & Kimura, T. (2011). Two distinct pathways to development of squamous cell carcinoma of vulva. Journal of Skin Cancer, article 951250. 

Virgilli, A. Corazza, M., Minghetti, S. & Borghi, A. (2015). Growing evidence for topical mometasone furoate in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosis. Maturitas, 80, 113-115. 

Vyas, A. (2017). Genital lichen sclerosus and its mimic. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 44, 389-406. 

Vulvodynia

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016). Persistent vulvar pain: Committee opinion no. 673. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 128, e78-84. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/Persistent-Vulvar-Pain

Bornstein, J., Goldstein, A. T., Stockdale, C. K., Bergeron, S., Pukall, C., Zolnoun, D., Coady, D. (2016). 2015 ISSVD, ISSWSH, and 
IPPS consensus terminology and classification of persistent vulvar pain and vulvodynia. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(4), 607.

Briggs, G. G., & Freeman, R. K. (2015). Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk (10th Ed.). 
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Doumouchtsis, S. K., Boama, V., Gorti, M., Tosson, S., & Fynes, M. M. (2011). Prospective evaluation of combined local bupivacaine and steroid injections for the management of chronic vaginal and perineal pain. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 284(3), 681-685. Doi: 10.1007/s00404-010-1763-z

Haefner, H. K. (2007). Report of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease terminology and classification of vulvodynia. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 11(1), 48-49.

Haefner, H. K., Collins, M. E., Davis, G. D., Edwards, L., Foster, D. C., Hartmann, E. D. H., & Wilkinson, E. J. (2005). The vulvodynia guideline. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, 9(1), 40-51.

Goldstein, A. T., Pukall, C. F., Brown, C., Bergeron, S., Stein, A., & Kellogg-Spadt, S. (2016). Vulvodynia: Assessment and Treatment. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(4), 572-590. Doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.01.020

Mandal, D., Nunns, D., Byrne, M., McLelland, J., Rani, R., Cullimore, J., & Wier, M. (2010). Guidelines for the management of vulvodynia. British Journal of Dermatology, 162(6), 1180-1185.

Prabhu, A., & Gardella, C. (2015). Common vaginal and vulvar disorders. Medical Clinics of North America, 99(3), 553-553. Doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.008

Shah, M., & Hoffstetter, S. (2014). Vulvodynia. Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinics of North America, 41. 453-464. 
doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2014.05.005

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

American College of Nurse Midwives. (2010). Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. 55(10):283-284 

Bradford, L.L., Ravel, J., & Bruno, V. (2013). Understanding vulvovaginal candidiasis through a community genomics approach. Current Fungal Infection Reports. 7(2):126-131

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Vaginal candidiasis. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/genital/index.html 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines-Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm  

Kennedy MA & Sobel JD. (2010). Vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida species: new insights. Current Infectious Disease Report. 212:465–70.

Khosravi, A, Shokri, H., Savadi, R., Niroumanesh, S., & Daieghazvini, R. (2011). A comparison study between the direct agglutination test and conventional methods in the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 20:639–645 

Krapf, J.M. (2018). Vulvovaginitis Treatment & Management. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2188931-treatment

lkit, M. & Guzel, A.B. (2011). The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: A mycological perspective. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 37(3); 250-261.

Sobel, J., Pappas, P., Kauffman, C., et al. (2016). Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Candidiasis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62 (4) 15: e1-e50 https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ933

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