Urologic Disorders


Acute Pyelonephritis

BMJ Publishing Group. Acute pyelonephritis. BMJ Best Practice. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: http://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/551

Colgan, R., & Williams, M. (2011). Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis in Women. American Family Physician (84), 519-526.

Fulop, T. (2017). Acute Pyelonephritis Treatment & Management: Approach Consideration, Antibiotic Selection, Outpatient Treatment. Medscape. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/245559-treatment 

Gupta, K., Hooten, T.M., Naber, K.G., et al. (2011). International Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis and Pyelonephritis in Women: A 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52 (5): e103-e120. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq257 


Albuminuria, Proteinuria

Bazari, H. (2009). Evaluation of the patient with proteinuria. In A. H. Goroll and A. G. Mulley, Primary Care Medicine: Office Management and Evaluation of The Adult Patient (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 

Inker, L. A., Astor, B. C., Fox, C. H., Isakova, T., Lash, J. P., Peralta, C. A., Tamura, M. K., and Fledman, H. I. (2014). KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 63(5), 713-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.416.

International Society of Nephrology. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements, 3. Retrieved from http://www.kdigo.org/clinical_practice_guidelines/pdf/CKD/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf

KDIGO Executive Committee. (2017). KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: http://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017-KDIGO-CKD-MBD-GL-Update.pdf

McCulloch, D. K. and Bakris, G. L. (2016). Moderately increased albuminuria (microalbuminuria) in type 2 diabetes mellitus. UpToDate. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/moderately-increased-albuminuria-microalbuminuria-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus 

Rovin, B. H. (2016). Assessment of urinary protein excretion and evaluation of isolated non-nephrotic proteinuria in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/assessment-of-urinary-protein-excretion-and-evaluation-of-isolated-non-nephrotic-proteinuria-in-adults


Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

Alvarez, J. R., Fechner, A. J., Williams, S. F., Ganesh, V. L., & Apuzzio, J. J. (2010). Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregestational diabetic pregnancies and the role of group B streptococcus. American Journal of Perinatology, 27(03), 231-234.

Crider, K. S., Cleves, M. A., Reefhuis, J., Berry, R. J., Hobbs, C. A., & Hu, D. J. (2009). Antibacterial medication use during pregnancy and risk of birth defects: National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(11), 978-985.

Dull, R. B., Friedman, S. K., Risoldi, Z. M., Rice, E. C., Starlin, R. C., & Destache, C. J. (2014). Antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in noncatheterized adults: A systematic review. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 34(9), 941-960.

Harding, G. K., Zhanel, G. G., Nicolle, L. E., & Cheang, M. (2002). Antimicrobial treatment in diabetic women with asymptomatic bacteriuria. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(20), 1576-1583.

Hill, J.B., Sheffield, J.S., McIntire, D.D., Wendel, G.D. (2005) Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 105, 1-8.

Hooton, T. M., Scholes, D., Stapleton, A. E., Roberts, P. L., Winter, C., Gupta, K., & Stamm, W. E. (2000). A prospective study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in sexually active young women. New England Journal of Medicine, 343(14), 992-997.

Keating, G. M. (2013). Fosfomycin trometamol: a review of its use as a single-dose oral treatment for patients with acute lower urinary tract infections and pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Drugs, 73(17), 1951-1966.

Le, J., Briggs, G. G., McKeown, A., & Bustillo, G. (2004). Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 38(10), 1692-1701.

Lin, E., Bhusal, Y., Horwitz, D., et al. (2012). Overtreatment of enterococcal bacteriuria. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172.

Lin, K., Fajardo, K. (2008). Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults: evidence for the U.S. preventive services task force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Archives of Internal Medicine, 149.

Nicolle, L. E., Bradley, S., Colgan, R., Rice, J. C., Schaeffer, A., & Hooton, T. M. (2005). American Society of Nephrology; American Geriatric Society. Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Clinical Infectious Disease, 40(5), 643-654.

Schnarr, J., & Smaill, F. (2008). Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 38(s2), 50-57.

Sobel JD and Kaye D. Urinary tract infections (2010). In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (7th ed.) Mandell GL, Bennett JE, and Dolin R. (Eds), Elsevier, Philadelphia.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, (149)43.

Zalmanovici, Trestioreanu, A., Lador, A., Sauerbrun-Cutler, M.T., Leibovici, L. (2015). Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 4:CD009534.


Diabetic Nephropathy

ADA (2018). Standards of medical care in diabetes 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/suppl/2017/12/08/41.Supplement_1.DC1/DC_41_S1_Combined.pdf

Bakris, G. L. (2016). Overview of diabetic nephropathy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-diabetic-nephropathy

Costacou, T., Ellis, D., Fried, L., Orchard, T. J. (2007). Sequence of progression of albuminuria and decreased GFR in persons with type 1 diabetes: a cohort study. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 50, 721. 

KDIGO. (2017). KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: http://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017-KDIGO-CKD-MBD-GL-Update.pdf

National Kidney Foundation. (2012). KDOQI clinical practice guideline for diabetes and CKD: 2012 update. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 60(5), 850-886.

National Kidney Foundation. (2007). KDOQI clinical practice recommendations for diabetes and chronic kidney disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 49(2), Supplement 2.

Newman, D. J., Mattock, M. B., Dawnay, A. B., et. al. (2005). Systematic review on urine albumin testing for early detection of diabetic complications. Health Technology Assessment, 9, iii.

Stanton, R. C. (2014). Clinical challenges in diagnosis and management of diabetic kidney disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 63, S3.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). FDA drug safety communication: FDA revises warnings regarding use of the diabetes medicine metformin in certain patients with reduced kidney function. Retrieved March 22, 2018, from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm493244.htm

Ziyadeh, F. N. (2009). Management of diabetic nephropathy. In Primer on Kidney Diseases (5th ed.), Greenberg, A., Cheung, A. K., Coffman, T. M., Falk, R. J., and Jennette, J. C. (Ed), National Kidney Foundation. Saunders Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA


Enuresis

American Academy of Pediatrics. Bedwetting. HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/toddler/toilet-training/Pages/Bedwetting.aspx

Austin, P.F., et al., The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: update report from the Standardization Committee of the International Children’s Continence Society. Neurourology and Urodynamics 2016; 35:471-81. 

Franco, I., et al., Evaluation and treatment of non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a standardization document from the International Children’s Continence Society. Journal of Pediatric Urology 2013; 9 (2): 234.

Harding, M. (2017). Nocturnal Enuresis in Children. Bedwetting in Children. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://patient.info/doctor/nocturnal-enuresis-in-children 

Robson, W. L. (2018). Enuresis. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1014762-overview#a7 

Tu, N. (2017). Nocturnal enuresis in children: Etiology and evaluation. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/nocturnal-enuresis-in-children-etiology-and-evaluation 

Yu, J., Yan, Z., Zhou, S., Han, F., Xiao, F., Han, J., Sun, C. (2017). Desmopressin plus anticholinergic agent in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis: A meta-analysis. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 14(4): 2875-2884. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4897. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613195/


Hematuria

American College of Physicians. (2016). Hematuria as a marker of occult urinary tract cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164 (7), 488-498. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2484290/hematuria-marker-occult-urinary-tract-cancer

American Urological Association. (2016). Diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria (AMH) in adults: AUA guideline. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.auanet.org/guidelines/asymptomatic-microhematuria-(2012-reviewed-and-validity-confirmed-2016)

Jameson, L. J. & Loscalzo, J. (2010). Harrison’s Nephrology and Acid Base Disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

National Kidney Foundation. (2014). Primer on Kidney Diseases (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.

Taal, M. W., Chertow, G. M., Marsden, P. A., Skorecki, K., Yu, A. S. L., & Brenner, B. M. (2012). Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.


Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

International Society of Nephrology. (2017). KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017-KDIGO-CKD-MBD-GL-Update.pdf

International Society of Nephrology. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements, 3(1), 1-150.

Jameson, L. J. & Loscalzo, J. (2010). Harrison’s Nephrology And Acid Base Disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

National Kidney Foundation. (2014). Primer on Kidney Diseases (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.

Niaudet, P. (2016). Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. UpToDate. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/poststreptococcal-glomerulonephritis

Taal, M. W., Chertow, G. M., Marsden, P. A., Skorecki, K., Yu, A. S. L., & Brenner, B. M. (2012). Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.


Renal Insufficiency

International Society of Nephrology. (2017). KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/2017-KDIGO-CKD-MBD-GL-Update.pdf

International Society of Nephrology. (2013). KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements, 3(1), 1-150.

Jameson, L. J. & Loscalzo, J. (2010). Harrison’s Nephrology and Acid Base Disorders. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

National Kidney Foundation. (2014). Primer on Kidney Diseases (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.

National Kidney Foundation. (2002). Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/docs/ckd_evaluation_classification_ stratification.pdf.

Taal, M. W., Chertow, G. M., Marsden, P. A., Skorecki, K., Yu, A. S. L., & Brenner, B. M. (2012). Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.



Urethritis

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep, 64(No.RR-3):1-137.

Katz, A. R., Chasnoff, R., Komeya, A., & Lee, M. V. C. (2011). Neisseria meningitidis urethritis: a case report highlighting clinical similarities to and epidemiological differences from gonococcal urethritis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 38(5), 439-441.

Moi, H., Blee, K., Horner, P.J. (2015). Management of non-gonococcal urethritis. BMC Infect Dis, 15: 294. doi:  10.1186/s12879-015-1043-4 PMCID: PMC4518518

Schwebke, J. R., Rompalo, A., Taylor, S., Sena, A. C., Martin, D. H., Lopez, L. M., & Lee, J. Y. (2011). Re-evaluating the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis: emphasizing emerging pathogens–a randomized clinical trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(2), 163-170.

Terris, M.K. (2017). Urethritis. Medscape Emedicine. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438091-overview 


Urinary Incontinence

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2015). Nonsurgical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women. Clinical Practice Guideline. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: https://www.aafp.org/patient-care/clinical-recommendations/all/urinary-incontinence.html 

Sangsawang, B., Sangsawang, N. (2013). Stress urinary incontinence in pregnant women: a review of prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment. Int Urogynecol J, 24(6): 901-912. doi:  10.1007/s00192-013-2061-7

Clemens, J.Q. (2017). Urinary incontinence in men. UpToDate. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/urinary-incontinence-in-men

Committee on Gynecologic Practice, American Urogynecologic Society. (2014). Committee Opinion: Evaluation of Uncomplicated Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women Before Surgical Treatment. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Gynecologic-Practice/Evaluation-of-Uncomplicated-Stress-Urinary-Incontinence-in-Women-Before-Surgical-Treatment 

Gormley, E. A., Lightner, D. J., Burgio, K. L., Chai, T. C., Clemens, J. Q., Culkin, D. J., & Vasavada, S. P. (2014). Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults: AUA/SUFU Guideline. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: http://www.auanet.org/guidelines/overactive-bladder-(oab)-(aua/sufu-guideline-2012-amended-2014)

Qaseem, A., Dallas, P., Forciea, M.A., et al. (2014). Nonsurgical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med, 161(6): 429-440. DOI: 10.7326/M13-2410. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/1905131/nonsurgical-management-urinary-incontinence-women-clinical-practice-guideline-from-american


Urinary Tract Infection

Donnenberg, M. S. (2013). Uncomplicated Cystitis—Not So Simple. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(20), 1959-1960.

Foxman, B. (2014). Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden.
Infect Dis Clin North Am, 28(1):1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2013.09.003.

Gupta, K., Hooton, T. M., Naber, K. G., Wullt, B., Colgan, R., Miller, L. G., & Soper, D. E. (2011). International Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment Of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis And Pyelonephritis in Women: a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(5), e103-e120. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/52/5/e103/388285 

Hooton, T. M., Roberts, P. L., & Stapleton, A. E. (2012). Cefpodoxime vs ciprofloxacin for short-course treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis: a randomized trial. JAMA, 307(6), 583-589.

Hooton, T. M., Roberts, P. L., Cox, M. E., & Stapleton, A. E. (2013). Voided midstream urine culture and acute cystitis in premenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(20), 1883-1891.

Karacan, C., Erkek, N., Senel, S., Akin Gunduz, S., Catli, G., & Tavil, B. (2010). Evaluation of urine collection methods for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children. Medical Principles and Practice, 19(3), 188-191.

Lam, T. B., Omar, M. I., Fisher, E., Gillies, K., & MacLennan, S. (2014). Types of indwelling urethral catheters for short‐term catheterisation in hospitalised adults. The Cochrane Library.

National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2015). Guideline summary: Lower urinary tract symptoms in men: assessment and management. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved Jan. 19, 2018, from: https://www.guideline.gov

Nicolle, L.E. (2013). Urinary tract infection. Crit Care Clin, 29(3):699-715. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2013.03.014. 

Roberts, K. B., & American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics, 128(3), 595-610.

Roberts, K. B. (2011). Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics, 128(3), 595-610.

Rowe, T.A., Juthani-Mehta, M. (2014). Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infection in Older Adults. 
Infect Dis Clin North Am, 28(1): 75–89.

Tosif, S., Baker, A., Oakley, E., Donath, S., & Babl, F. E. (2012). Contamination rates of different urine collection methods for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children: an observational cohort study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 48(8), 659-664.

Wang, A., Nizran, P., Malone, M.A., Riley, T. (2013). Urinary tract infections. Prim Care, 40(3):687-706. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2013.06.005.


Urolithiasis, Nephrolithiasis

American Urological Association. (2014). Medical Management of Kidney Stones. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://www.auanet.org/guidelines/medical-management-of-kidney-stones-(2014)

Brenna, I., Dogliotti, E., Terranegra, A., Raspini, B., & Soldati, L. (2013). Nephrolithiasis: nutrition as cause or therapeutic tool. Journal of Translational Medicine (11), 178.

Fathallah-Shaykh, S. (2014). Pediatric Urolithiasis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/983884-overview 

Fisang, C., Anding, R., Muller, S. C., Latz, S., & Laube, N. (2015). Urolithiasis-an Interdisciplinary Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Secondary Preventive Challenge. Deutsches Arzheblatt International (112), 83-91.

Shafi, H., Moazzami, B., Pourghasem, M., & Kasaeian, A. (2016). An overview of treatment options for urinary stones. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine, 7(1), 1–6.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4761115/ 


Vesicoureteral Reflux

Garcia, M., & Kirsch, A. (2016). Urinary tract infection in the setting of vesicoureteral reflux. F1000 Research, 5. Doi:10.12688/f1000research.8390.1 

Mattoo, T., Chesney, R., Greenfield, S., Hoberman, A., Keren, R., Mathews, R., Ziessman, H. (2016). Renal scarring in the randomized intervention for children with vesicoureteral reflux (RIVUR) trial. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 11(1), 54¬61. Doi: 10.2215/CJN.05210515 

Mattoo, T. & Greenfield, S. (2016). Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and course of primary vesicoureteral reflux. UpToDate. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-course-of-primary-vesicoureteral-reflux

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2012). Vesicoureteral reflux. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/urine-blockage-newborns/vesicoureteral-reflux  

Newman, T. (2011). The new American Academy of Pediatrics urinary tract infection guideline. Pediatrics, 128(3), 572–575. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2011¬1818 

Peters, C., Skoog, S., Arant, B., Copp, H., Elder, J. Snodgrass, W. (2010). Management and screening of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children: AUA guideline. Journal of Urology. 184(3), 1134¬1144. Doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.05.065 

Roberts, K. (2012). Revised AAP guideline on UTI in febrile infants and young children. American Family Physician, 86(10), 940¬946. Retrieved 12/9/2016 from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p940.html 

Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection (2011). Urinary tract infection: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics, 128(3), 595¬610, Doi: 10.1542/peds.201101330 

The RIVUR Trial Investigators. (2014). Antimicrobial prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(25), 2367–2376. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1401811 

Wozniak, M. M., Osemlak, P., Pawelec, A., Brodzisz, A., Nachulewicz, P., Wieczorek, A., & Zajaczkowska, M. (2014). Intraoperative contrast enhanced urosonography during endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children. Pediatric Radiology, 44(9), 1093¬1100. Doi: 10.1007/s00247¬014¬2963¬7(1) 


Wilms Tumor

Children’s Oncology Group. In Treatment. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://childrensoncologygroup.org/index.php/wilmstumorandotherkidneycancers?id=193 

Chintagumpala, M., & Muscal, J. (2013). Presentation, diagnosis, and staging of Wilms tumor. UpToDate. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/presentation-diagnosis-and-staging-of-wilms-tumor

Cure Search. Childhood Cancer Statistics. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://curesearch.org/Number-of-Diagnoses 

Kline, N.E., (2014), Essentials of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nursing: A Core Curriculum, p 68-69, Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

National Cancer Institute. Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors treatment. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: https://www.cancer.gov/types/kidney/patient/wilms-treatment-pdq

Paulino, A. (2014). Wilms Tumor. Medscape. Retrieved March 23, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/989398-overview 

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