Orthopedic Disorders


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Gordon, M. D., MD, & Steiner, M. E., MD. (2004). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries. In: Orthopaedic Knowledge Update Sports Medicine III. Garrick JG. (Ed). Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, p. 533

Kaeding, C.C., Leger-St-Jean & Magnussen, R.A. (2017). Epidemilogy and Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. Clinical Sports Medicine. (36) 1-8.

Spindler, K.P., & Wright, R.W. (2008). Clinical practice. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. New England Journal of Medicine. 359: 2135

Jackson J.L., O’Malley, P.G., Kroenke, K. (2003). Evaluation of acute knee pain in primary care. Annals of Internal Medicine. 139: 575.

Friedberg, R. P. (2017). Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury


Baker’s Cyst

Alessi, S., Depaoli, R., Canepari, M. Bartolucci, F., Zacchino, M. & Draghi, F. (2012). Baker’s cyst in pediatric patients: Ultrasonographic characteristics. Journal of Ultrasound. 15(1): 76-81. 

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2010). Popliteal Cyst. In: Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care, 5th Edition, 716-718. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 

Crenshaw, A. (2017). Soft tissue procedures and corrective osteotomies about the knee. F. Azar, J. Beaty & S.T. Canale, Eds. Campbell’s Operative Orthopedic, 13th Edition, 477-506.e2. Philadelphia: Elsevier. 

Domino, F. (2017). 5 Minute Clinical Consult Premium 2017, 25th Ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

Fritschy, D., Fasel, J., Imbert, J-C., Bianchi, S., Verdonk, R., Wirth, C.J. (2006). The popliteal cyst. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology and Arthoscopy. 14: 623-628.

Frush, T. & Noyes, F. (2015). Baker’s cyst. Sports Health, 7(4), 359-365. 

Handy, J. (2001). Popliteal cysts in adults: A review. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 31(2): 108-118.

Herman, A. & Marzo, J. (2014). Popliteal cysts: A current review. Orthopedics. doi: 10.3928/01477447-20140728-52
 
Lata, S., Garg, P., Chauhan, S., Saxena, D., & Gupta, S. (2015). Baker’s cyst in popliteal region: a case report. International Journal of Medical Research Professionals, 1(1), 44-46.

Rosenberg, D. & Amadera, J. (2015). Baker cyst. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition, 331-334. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Stein, D., Cantlon, M., MacKay, B., & Hoelscher, C. (2013). Cysts about the knee: Evaluation and management. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 21(8), 469-479. 


Bursitis

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th Ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, Il.

Blackwell, J.R., Hay, B.A., Bolt, A. M., & Hay, S.M. (2014). Olecranon bursitis: a systematic overview. Shoulder and Elbow 6(3). 182-190.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd Ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA.

Brinks, A., van Rijn, R.M., Willemsen, S.P., Bohnen, A.M., Verhaar, J.A., Koes, B.W., & Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M. (2011). Corticosteroid injections for greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial in primary care. Annals of Family Medicine. 9(3):226-34.

Brock, G. & Gurekas, V. (2014). The occasional pes anserinus bursitis injection. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine. 19(2):71-3.

Del Buonoa, A., Franceschia, F., Palumboa, A., Denaroa, V., & Maffullib, N. (2012). Diagnosis and management of olecranon bursitis. The Surgeon. 10(5). 297-300.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th Ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA.

Huang, Y.C. & Yeh, W.L. (2011). Endoscopic treatment of prepatellar bursitis. International Orthopedics. 35(3):355-8.

Lustenberger, D.P., Ng, V.Y., Best, T.M. & Ellis, T.J. (2011). Efficacy of treatment of trochanteric bursitis: a systematic review. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. 21(5):447-53.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th Ed.). National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, Il.


Clavicular Fracture

Hayasi, A. (n.d.). Displacement drives treatment of clavicle fractures. American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from http://www.aaos.org/news/aaosnow/aug09/clinical1.asp 

Kleinhenz, MD, B. (2017). Clavicle Fractures Workup. Medscape. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/92429-workup 

Otivier, A, Gaskill, T, millett, P. (2011). Treatment of clavicle fractures: current concepts review. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2011.08.053 Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.drmillett.com/wp-content/uploads/articles/Treatment%20of%20clavicle%20fractures%20current%20concepts%20review.pdf 

Pecci, M., & Kreher, J. (2008). Clavicle Fractures. American Family Physician (77), 65-70.

Toogood P, Horst, P., Samaqh, S., Feeley, BT. (2011), Clavicle Fracures: a review of the ltierature and update on treatment. Physician and Sportsmedicine 39 (3): 142-150. DOI: 10.3810/psm.2011.09.1930


De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis

Ashraf, M., & Devadoss, V. G. (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis on steroid injection therapy for DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis in adults. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, 24, 149-157. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-012-1164-z 

Goroll, A. H., & Mulley, A. G., Jr. (2014). Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and Management of the Adult Patient (6th ed.) Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Meals, R. A. (2015). DeQuervain tenosynovitis. Medscape. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1243387-overview 

Post, T. W. (2017). De Quervain's Tendinopathy. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/de-quervain-tendinopathy


Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B. & Dunn, A.M. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care. (5th ed.) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ferri, F. (2017). Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2017. Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA. 

Hay, W.W., Levin, M.J., Deterding, R.R. & Abzug, M.J. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (22nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education Lange.

Jackson, J., Runge, M., & Nye, N. (2014). Common questions about developmental dysplasia of the hip. American Family Physician, 90 (12), 843-850. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p843.html 

Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America. (2013). Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH). Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00347 

Tamai, J. (2017). Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Medscape. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1248135-overview 

United Stated Preventive Services Task Force. (2006). Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspshipd.htm 

Uphold, C. & Graham, M. (2013). Clinical Guidelines in Family Practice. Barmarrae Books, Inc. 


Epicondylitis

Ahmad, Z., Siddiqui, N., Malik, S.S., Abdus-Samee, M., Tytherleigh-Strong, G., & Rushton, N. (2013). Lateral epicondylitis. A review of pathology and management. The Bone and Joint Journal, 95-B (9). 1158-1164 

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th Ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, Il.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd Ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Descatha, A., Dale, A.M., Jaegers, L., Herquelot, E., & Evanoff, B. (2013). Self-reported physical exposure association with medial and lateral epicondylitis incidence in a large longitudinal study. Occupational Environmental Medicine. 70(9):670-3.

Dick, F.D., Graveling, R.A., Munro, W. & Walker-Bone, K. (2011). Guideline Development Group. Workplace management of upper limb disorders: a systematic review. Occupational Medicine. 61(1):19-25.

Inagaki, K. (2013). Current concepts of elbow-joint disorders and their treatment. Journal of Orthopedic Science.18(1):1-7.

Kane, S.F., Lynch, J.H. & Taylor, J.C. (2014) Evaluation of elbow pain in adults. American Family Physician. 89(8):649-57.

Rodriguez, J.A. (2014). Corticosteroid Versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection in Epicondylitis. Orthopaedic Nursing 33(5). 257-265.

Walker-Bone, K., Palmer, K.T., Reading, I., Coggon, D. & Cooper, C. (2012). Occupation and epicondylitis: a population-based study. Rheumatology 51(2):305-10.


Fractures

Beutler, A. & Derby, R. (2016). General principles of acute fracture management. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/general-principles-of-acute-fracture-management

Buckley, R. (2016). General principles of fracture care. Medscape. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1270717-overview#a9 

Buckley, R. (2014). General principles of fracture care treatment & management. Medscape. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1270717-treatment 

Eiff, P., & Hatch, R. (2011). Fracture Management for Primary Care (3rd Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.

Kronfol, R. (2016). Splinting of musculoskeletal injuries. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://cursoenarm.net/UPTODATE/contents/mobipreview.htm?22/52/23375?source=see_link

Mayersak, R. (2016). Initial evaluation and management of facial trauma in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/initial-evaluation-and-management-of-facial-trauma-in-adults

Norwell, J. (2014). Tibia and Fibula Fracture Medication: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), analgesics, immunoglobulins, toxoids. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/826304-medication 

Romeo, N. (2013). Femur Injuries and Fractures Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/90779-differential 


Gamekeeper’s Thumb

Brotzman, S. and Novotny, S. (2017). Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (Gamekeeper’s thumb). In: Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: A Team Approach. (4th Ed). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Lotke, P., Abboud, J., and Ende, J. (2014). Lippincott’s Primary Care Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

Schaider, J., Barkin, R., Hayden, S., Wolfe, R., Barkin, A., Shayne, P., Rosen, P. (2015). Rosen and Barkin’s 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult. Philadelphia, PA: Wolter Kluwer Health. 

Schroeder, N. & Goldfarb, C. (2015). Thumb ulnar collateral and radial collateral ligament injuries. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 34(1), 117-126. 

Skinner, H and McMahon, P. (2014). Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Orthopedics. (5th ed.) McGraw- Hill Education.


Gout

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th Ed.). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, IL.

Choi, H.K., Niu, J., Neogi, T., Chen, C.A., Chaisson, C., Hunter, D. & Zhang, Y. (2015). Nocturnal risk of gout attacks. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 67(2):555-62.

Crum-Cianflone, N.F. (2014). Joint pain and swelling. American Family Physician. 89(5):381-2.

Grassi, D., Ferri, L., Desideri, G., Di Giosia, P., Cheli, P., Del Pinto, R., Properzi, G. & Ferri, C. (2013). Chronic hyperuricemia, uric acid deposit and cardiovascular risk. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 19(13):2432-8.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A practical Approach (5th Ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Khanna, D., Fitzgerald, J. D., Khanna, P. P., Bae, S., Singh, M. K., Neogi, T., Pillinger, M. H., Merill, J., Lee, S., Prakash, S., Kaldas, M., Gogia, M., Perez-Ruiz, F., Taylor, W., Lioté, F., Choi, H., Singh, J. A., Dalbeth, N., Kaplan, S., Niyyar, V., Jones, D., Yarows, S. A., Roessler, B., Kerr, G., King, C., Levy, G., Furst, D. E., Edwards, N. L., Mandell, B., Schumacher, H. R., Robbins, M., Wenger, N. and Terkeltaub, R. (2012). 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: Systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis Care & Research, 64(10): 1431–1446. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683400/

Khanna, D., Khanna, P. P., Fitzgerald, J. D., Singh, M. K., Bae, S., Neogi, T., Pillinger, M. H., Merill, J., Lee, S., Prakash, S., Kaldas, M., Gogia, M., Perez-Ruiz, F., Taylor, W., Lioté, F., Choi, H., Singh, J. A., Dalbeth, N., Kaplan, S., Niyyar, V., Jones, D., Yarows, S. A., Roessler, B., Kerr, G., King, C., Levy, G., Furst, D. E., Edwards, N. L., Mandell, B., Schumacher, H. R., Robbins, M., Wenger, N. and Terkeltaub, R. (2012). 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 2: Therapy and antiinflammatory prophylaxis of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Care & Research, 64(10): 1447–1461. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662546/

Roddy, E. & Choi, H.K. (2014). Epidemiology of gout. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America. 40(2):155-75.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th Ed.). National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, IL

Stamp, L.K. & Chapman, P.T. (2013). Gout and its comorbidities: implications for therapy. Rheumatology. 52(1):34-44.

Tejera, B., Riveros, A., Martínez-Morillo, M. & Cañellas, J. (2014). Septic arthritis associated to gout and pseudogout: the importance of arthrocentesis. Reumatologia Clinica. 10(1):61-2


Hammer Toe Deformity

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. (2012). Hammer toe. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00160 

DiPreta, J. (2014). Metatarsalgia, lesser toe deformities, and associated disorders of the forefoot. Medical Clinics of North America, 98(2), 233-252. 

Lotke, P., Abboud, J., and Ende, J. (2014). Lippincott’s Primary Care Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

Malhotra, K., Davda, K., and Singh, D. (2017). The pathology and management of lesser toe deformities. EFFORT Open Reviews, 1(11),409-419.

Marx, R. & Mizel, M. (2013). What’s new in foot and ankle surgery. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American, 95(10):951-957.

Schaider, J., Barkin, R., Hayden, S., Wolfe, R., Barkin, A., Shayne, P., Rosen, P. (5th Ed.). (2015). Rosen and Barkin’s 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult. Philadelphia, PA: Wolter Kluwer Health. 


Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Aderem, J., & Louw, Q. A. (2015). Biomechanical risk factors associated with iliotibial band syndrome in runners: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 16, 356. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4647699/

Beals, C. & Flanigan, D. (2013). A review of treatments for iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population. Journal of Sports Medicine, Article ID 367169, 6 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/367169

Brotzman, S. (2011). Knee injuries. In Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach (3rd ed., pp. 211-314). Mosby.

Jackson, J., & Grayzel, J. (2017). Iliotibial band syndrome. In K.B. Fields (Ed.), UptoDate. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/iliotibial-band-syndrome   

Strauss, E., Kim, S., Calcei, J., & Park, D. (2011). Iliotibial band syndrome: Evaluation and management. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 19(12), 728-736. 


Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

Anderson, B.C. (2006). Office Orthopedics for Primary Care. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B. & Dunn, A.M. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care. (5th ed). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ferri, F. (2018). Ferri’s 2018 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier. 

Hay, W.W., Levin, M.J., Deterding, R.R.  & Abzug, M.J. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (22nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education Lange.

Uphold, C. & Graham, M. (2013). Clinical Guidelines in Family Practice. Barmarrae Books, Inc.

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. (2015). Perthes Disease. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00070 


Low Back Pain

Buttaro, T.M., Trybulski, J. Bailey, P.P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice. (4th ed.). St Louis: Mosby

Casazza, B.A. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain. American Family Physician, 85(4), 343-350. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p343.html 

Chou, R. & Huffman L.H. (2007). Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: A review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147, 505-514. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00008. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/736857/medications-acute-chronic-low-back-pain-review-evidence-american-pain 

Delitto, A., George, S. Z., Van Dillen, L., et al. (2012). Low back pain: Clinical practice guidelines linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 42(4), A1–57. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.42.4.A1 

Qaseem, A., Wilt, T. J., McLean, R. M., & Forciea, M. A. (2017). Noninvasive treatments for acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 166(7), 514-530. doi:10.7326/M16-2367. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2603228/noninvasive-treatments-acute-subacute-chronic-low-back-pain-clinical-practice


Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

Dexter, W. W., MD, & Grayzel, J., MD, FAAEM. (2016). Medial Collateral Ligament Injury of the Knee (Fields, K.B., Ed.). Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/medial-collateral-ligament-injury-of-the-knee

Singhal, M., Patel, J., Johnson, D. (2010). Medial ligament injuries. In: DeLee and Drez Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, p. 1629

Roach, C., Haley, C., Cameron, K., et al. (2014). The epidemiology of medial collateral ligament sprains in young athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine 42:1103.

Schein, A., Matcuk, G., Patel, D., et al. (2012). Structure and function, injury, pathology, and treatment of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. Emergency Radiology 19:489.


Metatarsus Adductus

Ferri, F. (2018). Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia; Elsevier. 

Hay, W.W., Levin, M.J., Deterding, R.R. & Abzug, M.J. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (22nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education Lange.

Moses, S. (2017). Metatarsus Adductus. Family Practice Notebook. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.fpnotebook.com/Ortho/Peds/Mtrsadcts.htm

Uphold, C. & Graham, M. (2013). Clinical Guidelines in Family Practice. Gainesville, FL: Barmarrae Books, Inc. 

United States National Library of Medicine. (2016). Metatarsus adductus. Medline. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001601.htm


Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, Il.

Atanda, A. Jr, Shah, S.A. & O'Brien, K. (2011). Osteochondrosis: common causes of pain in growing bones. American Family Physician. 83(3):285-91.

Barber Foss, K.D., Myer, G.D. & Hewett, T.E. (2014). Epidemiology of basketball, soccer, and volleyball injuries in middle-school female athletes. Physician and Sports Medicine. 42(2):146-53.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA.

Czyrny, Z. (2010). Osgood-Schlatter disease in ultrasound diagnostics--a pictorial essay. Medical Ultrasonography. 12(4):323-35.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA.

Lipman, R. R. (2015). A review of knee pain in adolescent females. The Nurse Practitioner. 40(7): 28-36.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th ed.) National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, Il.

Vreju, F., Ciurea, P. & Rosu, A. (2010). Osgood-Schlatter disease-ultrasonographic diagnostic. Medical Ultrasonography. 12(4):336-9.

Whitmore, A. (2013). Osgood-Schlatter Disease. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. 26(10): 51-52.

Yen, Y. (2014). Assessment and Treatment of Knee Pain in the Child and Adolescent Athlete. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 61(6): 1155-1173.


Osteoarthritis

Berkoff, D. J., Miller, L. E., & Block, J. E. (2012). Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 7, 89–95. Doi:10.2147/CIA.S29265

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Osteoarthritis. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/osteoarthritis.htm

Deveza, L.A. (2017). Overview of the management of osteoarthritis. UpToDate. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-management-of-osteoarthritis

Deveza, L.A. (2017). Patient Education: Osteoarthritis. UpToDate. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/osteoarthritis-treatment-beyond-the-basics

Hochberg, M. C., Altman, R. D., April, K. T., Benkhalti, M., Guyatt, G., McGowan, J., Tugwell, P. (2012). American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the use of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care & Research, 64(4), 465-474. Doi:10.1002/acr.21596

Stanos, S. (2013). Osteoarthritis Guidelines: A Progressive Role for Topical NSAIDs. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 113(2), 123–127. Doi:10.7556/jaoa.2013.113.2.123


Osteoporosis

Cawthon, P.M. (2011). Gender differences in osteoporosis and fracture. Clinical Orthopedic Research. 469(7): 1900-1905. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111766/

Cosman, F., De Beur, S. J., LeBoff, M. S., Lewiecki, E. M., Tanner, B., Randall, S., & Lindsay, R. (2014). Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s00198-014-2794-2 

Qaseem, A., Forciea, M.A., McLean, R.M., Denberg, T.D., for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. (2017). Treatment of Low Bone Density or Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures in Men and Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline Update from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 166(11):818–839. doi: 10.7326/M15-1361

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2011). Clinical Summary: Osteoporosis Screening. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/ClinicalSummaryFinal/osteoporosis-screening

Watts, N.B., Bilezikian, J.P., Camacho, P.M., et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. (2010). Endocrine Practice. 16(Suppl 3). Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.aace.com/files/osteo-guidelines-2010.pdf


Pain Management in Orthopedics

Allen, A.D., Choong, P.F., Davis, A.M., et al. (2016). Osteoarthritis: Models for appropriate care across the disease continuum. Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology, 30, 503-535. doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2016.09.003

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2017). Safety and Prevention: acetaminophen dosage table for fever and pain. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-home/medication-safety/Pages/Acetaminophen-for-Fever-and-Pain.aspx

American College of Rheumatology. (2017). Osteoarthritis: Pocket card. Guidelines Central. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.guidelinecentral.com/shop/osteoarthritis-guidelines-pocket-card/

Bliddal, H., Leeds A. R., & Christensen, R. (2014). Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss: evidence, hypotheses and horizons: A scoping review. Obesity Reviews 15, 578–586.  doi: 10.1111/obr.12173

Bliddal, H. & Christensen, R. (2006). The management of osteoarthritis in the obese patient: Practical considerations and guidelines for therapy. Obesity Reviews, 7, 323–331. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00252.x

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Physical activity for arthritis. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/physical-activity-overview.html  

John, J & Chandran, L. (2011). Arthritis in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics in Review. 32 (11). 

Kizior, R.J. & Hodgson, K.J. (2018). Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook 2018. Elsevier: St. Louis, Mo.

Murphy, L. & Helmick, H.G. (2012). Preventing and managing OA: The impact of osteoarthritis in the United States: A population-health perspective. American Journal of Nursing, 112 (3), S13-S19.

Neogi, T. (2013). The epidemiology and impact of pain in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 21, 1145-1153.

Xu, C., Gu, K., Yasen Y., & Hou, Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of celecoxib therapy in osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.. Medicine, 95 (20), e3585. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000003585


Pes Cavus

Ball, T., Butler, M., & Parsons, S. (2013). Pes Cavus – Not just a clinical sign. Diagnosis, Aetiology and Management. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.acnr.co.uk/2013/01/pes-cavus-not-just-a-clinical-sign-diagnosis-aetiology-and-management 

Knipe, H. and Weerakkody, Y. (2017). Pes Cavus. Radiopaedia. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/pes-cavus 

Scherer, P., Choate, C. (2017). Current Concepts in Orthotic Therapy for Pes Cavus. Podiatry Today. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.podiatrytoday.com/current-concepts-in-orthotic-therapy-for-pes-cavus 

Turner, N. (2016). Pes Cavus. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1236538-overview#a6 


Pes Planus

Buchanan, M. (2016). Pes Planus (Flatfoot). Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1236652-overview 

Edwards, J. (2017). Pes Planus-Flat Feet. Physio-Works. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://physioworks.com.au/injuries-conditions-1/pes-planus-flat-feet 

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015). Diseases Flatfeet. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/flatfeet/basics/definition/con-20023429 

Radovic, P. (2016). Flatfoot (Pes Planus). Medicine Net. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.medicinenet.com/flatfoot_pes_planus/article.htm 


Plantar Fasciitis


Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, Il.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Cutts, S., Obi, N., Pasapula, C. & Chan, W. (2012). Plantar fasciitis. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 94(8):539-42.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Goff, J.D. & Crawford R. (2011). Diagnosis and treatment of plantar fasciitis. American Family Physician. 84(6):676-82.

Lopes, A.D., Hespanhol, L.C., Yeung, S.S. & Costa, L.O. (2012). What are the main running-related musculoskeletal injuries? A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine. 42(10):891-905.

Mushtaq, N & Abbasian, A. (2013). Plantar fasciitis. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 95(3):229.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th ed.) National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, IL

Schwartz, E.N. & Su, J. (2014). Plantar fasciitis: a concise review. Permanente Journal. 18(1):e105-7.

Thing, J., Maruthappu, M. & Rogers, J. (2011). Diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis in primary care. The British Journal of General Practice. 62(601):443-4.

Thompson, J.V., Saini, S.S., Reb, C.W. & Daniel, J.M. (2014). Diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association (114)12. 900-906.

Tu, P. & Bytomski, J.R. (2011). Diagnosis of heel pain. American Family Physician. 84(8):909-16.

Vannini, F., Di Matteo, B., Filardo, G., Kon, E., Marcacci, M., & Giannini, S. (2014). Platelet-rich plasma for foot and ankle pathologies: a systematic review. Foot and Ankle Surgery. 20(1):2-9.


Rotator Cuff Syndrome

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, IL.

Bodin J., Ha, C., Chastang, J.F., Descatha, A., Leclerc, A., Goldberg, M., Imbernon, E. & Roquelaure, Y. (2012). Comparison of risk factors for shoulder pain and rotator cuff syndrome in the working population. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 55(7):605-615.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Childress, M.A. & Beutler, A. (2013). Management of chronic tendon injuries. American Family Physician. 87(7):486-90.

Dewan, A.K., Garzon-Muvdi, J., Petersen, S.A., Jia, X. & McFarland, E.G. (2012). Intraarticular abnormalities in overhead athletes are variable. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 470(6):1552-7.

Edmonds, E.W. & Dengerink, D.D. (2014). Common conditions in the overhead athlete. American Family Physician. 89(7):537-41.

Greenberg, D.L. (2014). Evaluation and Treatment of Shoulder Pain. Medical Clinics of North America. 98(3): 487–504.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Robinson, P.M., Doll, H.A. & Roy, B.R. (2011). Treating the torn rotator cuff: current practice in the UK. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 93(7):532-6.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th ed.) National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, IL


Scoliosis

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, Il.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Crostelli, M. & Mazza, O. (2013). AIS and spondylolisthesis. European Spine Journal. 22 Suppl 2:S172-84.

El-Hawary, R.R. (2014). Update on evaluation and treatment of scoliosis. The Pediatric Clinics of North America. 61(6): 1223-1241.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Gorman, K.F., Julien, C. & Moreau, A. (2012). The genetic epidemiology of idiopathic scoliosis. European Spine Journal. 21(10):1905-19.

Mordecai, S.C. & Dabke, H.V. (2012). Efficacy of exercise therapy for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a review of the literature. European Spine Journal. 21(3):382-9.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th ed.) National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, IL

Vialle, R., Thévenin-Lemoine, C. & Mary, P. (2013). Neuromuscular scoliosis. Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research. 99(1 Suppl):S124-39.
Vitale, M.G., Gomez, J.A., Matsumoto, H., Roye, D.P. Jr. (2011). Chest Wall and Spine Deformity Study Group. Variability of expert opinion in treatment of early-onset scoliosis. Clinical Orthopedics Related Research. 469 (5):1317-22.


Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Allen, D. (2016). Outlet (subacromial) Impingement. Orthobullets. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: www.orthobullets.com/sports/3041/outlet-subacromial-impingement 

Fralich, L., MD, Stevenson, J.H., MD. (2014). Shoulder Pain. In The Five Minute Clinical Consult (22nd ed., pp. 1132-1133). Lippincottz; Philadelphia, PA

Simons, S.M., FACSM, Kruse, D., MD, & Dixon, J.B., MD. (2017). Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/shoulder-impingement-syndrome


Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Anderson, B.C. (2006). Office Orthopedics for Primary Care: Diagnosis, Treatment, Philadelphia: Saunders.

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B. & Dunn, A.M. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care. (5th ed.) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ferri, F. (2018). Ferri’s 2018 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier. 

Hay, W.W., Levin, M.J., Deterding, R.R. & Abzug, M.J. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (22nd ed.) New York: McGraw Hill Education Lange.

Jackson, J., Runge, M., & Nye, N. (2014). Common questions about developmental dysplasia of the hip. American Family Physician, 90 (12), 843-850. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p843.html 

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis. (2017) American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00052 

United States Preventive Services Task Force. (2006). Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspshipd.htm 

Uphold, C. & Graham, M. (2013). Clinical Guidelines in Family Practice. Barmarrae Books, Inc. 

Walter, K. & Young, C. (2016). Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/91596-overview#a6 


Sprain/Strain

Kaminiski PhD, T., Hertel, PhD, J., Amendola, MD, N., Docherty, PhD, C., Dolan, MA, M., Hopkins, T., et al. (2013). National Athletic Trainer Association Position Statment: Conservative Managment and Prevention of Ankle Spains in Athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 48 (4), 528-545.

Millar, A. L. (2011). ACSM information on sprains, strains and tears. American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.acsm.org/docs/brochures/sprains-strains-and-tears.pdf 

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. (2015). Sprains and Strains. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sprains_Strains/default.asp 

Young, C. C., & Ho, S. (2014). Ankle Sprain: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1907229-overview


Stress Fracture

Boden, B., & Matava, M. (2008). Stress Fractures. American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.sportsmed.org/aossmimis/STOP/Downloads/SportsTips/StressFractures.pdf  

DeWeber, K. (2016). Overview of stress fractures. UpToDate. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-stress-fractures

Kishner, S. (2014). Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for Stress Fractures. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/309106-overview  

Martinez, J. (2015). Stress Fractures: Overview, Pathophysiology, Risk Factors. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1270244-overview#a1  

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2016). Overview: Stress Fractures. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/home/ovc-20232072 

Patel, D. (2011). Stress Fractures: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. American Family Physician, 83(1), 39-46.


Subluxation of the Radial Head

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, Il.

Browner, E.A. (2013). Nursemaid's Elbow (Annular Ligament Displacement). Pediatrics in Review. 34(8):366-367.

Curtis, E. (2012). Managing 'pulled elbow' in the Paediatric emergency department. Emergency Nurse. 19(9):24-7

Dixon, A., Clarkin, C., Barrowman, N., Correll, R., Osmond, M.H. & Plint, A.C. (2014). Reduction of radial-head subluxation in children by triage nurses in the emergency department: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 186(9):E317-23.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

McCann, F., Canet, F., Sandman, E., Petit, Y. & Rouleau, D.M. (2013). Does radiographic beam angle affect the radiocapitellar ratio measurement of subluxation in the elbow? Clinical Orthopedics & Related Research. 471(8):2556-62.

Rudloe, T.F., Schutzman, S., Lee, L.K. & Kimia, A.A. (2012). No longer a "nursemaid's" elbow: mechanisms, caregivers, and prevention. Pediatric Emergency Care. 28(8):771-774.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th Ed.). National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, IL

Vitello, S., Dvorkin, R., Sattler, S., Levy, D. & Ung, L. (2014).  Epidemiology of nursemaid's elbow. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 15(4):554-557.

Wheeless, C, (2015). Nursemaid’s Elbow/Radial Head Subluxation. Wheeless Textbook of Orthopedics Online. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/nursemaids_elbow_radial_head_subluxation 


Talipes Equinovarus

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.  Ortho Info Clubfoot. (2014). Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00255 

Anderson, B.C. (2006). Office Orthopedics for Primary Care: Diagnosis, Treatment. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Bridgens, J., & Kiely, N. (2010). Current management of clubfoot (congenital talipes equinovarus). BMJ, 340, c355.doi: 10.1136/bmj.c355

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B. & Dunn, A.M. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care. (5th ed.) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ferri, F. (2018). Ferri’s 2018 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier. 

Hay, W.W., Levin, M.J., Deterding, R.R.  & Abzug, M.J. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (22nd ed.) New York: McGraw Hill Education Lange.

Patel, M. & Panchbhavi, V. (2017). Clubfoot. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1237077-overview

Uphold, C. & Graham, M. (2013). Clinical Guidelines in Family Practice. Barmarrae Books, Inc. 


Transient Synovitis of the Hip in Children

Anderson, B.C. (2006). Office Orthopedics for Primary Care: Diagnosis, Treatment. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Burns, C.E., Brady, M.A., Blosser, C., Starr, N.B. & Dunn, A.M. (2013). Pediatric Primary Care. (5th ed.) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ferri, F. (2018). Ferri’s 2018 Clinical Advisor. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier. 

Hay, W.W., Levin, M.J., Deterding, R.R.  & Abzug, M.J. (2014). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics. (22nd ed.) New York: McGraw Hill Education Lange.

Jackson, J., Runge, M., & Nye, N. (2014). Common questions about developmental dysplasia of the hip. American Family Physician, 90 (12), 843-850. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p843.html

Uphold, C. & Graham, M. (2013). Clinical Guidelines In Family Practice. Barmarrae Books, Inc. 

Whitelaw, C. & Jung, L. (2017). Transient Synovitis. Medscape. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1007186-overview


Upper Extremity Joint Derangement

Armstrong, A.D. & Hubbard, M.C. (2015). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care (5th ed.) American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: Rosemont, IL.

Bracker, M.D. (2011). The 5-Minute Sports Medicine Consult (2nd ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Davis, K.W. (2010). Imaging pediatric sports injuries: upper extremity. Radiologic Clinics of North America. 48(6):1199-211.

Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic Imaging: A Practical Approach (5th ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA

Harada, M., Takahara, M., Mura, N., Sasaki, J., Ito, T. (2010). Ogino, T. Risk factors for elbow injuries among young baseball players. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 19(4):502-7.

Kijowski, R. & Tuite, M.J. (2010). Pediatric throwing injuries of the elbow. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology. 14(4):419-29.

Osbahr, D.C., Chalmers, P.N., Frank, J.S., Williams, R.J. 3rd, Widmann, R.F. & Green, D.W. (2010). Acute, avulsion fractures of the medial epicondyle while throwing in youth baseball players: a variant of Little League elbow. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 19(7):951-957.

Paz, D.A., Chang, G.H., Yetto, J.M., Dwek, J.R. & Chung, C.B. (2015). Upper extremity overuse injuries in pediatric athletes: clinical presentation, imaging findings, and treatment. Clinical Imaging. 39(6):954-964.

Saltzman, B.M., Chalmers, P.N., Mascarenhas, R., Cole, B.J. & Romeo, A.A. (2014). Upper extremity physeal injury in young baseball pitchers. The Physician and Sports Medicine. 42(3):100-11.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Core Curriculum for Orthopedic Nursing (7th Ed.). National Association of Orthopedic Nursing: Chicago, IL

Wei, A.S., Khana, S., Limpisvasti, O., Crues, J., Podesta, L. & Yocum, L.A. (2010). Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with Little League elbow. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 30(7):715-9

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